Biotechnology Grant Mcwhite

Cloning

Cloning, the process of generating a genetically identical copy of a cell or an organism. Cloning happens all the time in nature—for example, when a cell replicates itself asexually without any genetic alteration or recombination. It is currently used now because they used it to clone a goat. Yes because the risks associated with reproductive cloning in humans introduce a very high likelihood of loss of life, the process is considered unethical.

Issues with reproductive cloning include genetic damage to the clone, health risks to the mother, very low success rate meaning loss of large numbers of embryos and fetuses, psychological harm to the clone, complex altered familial relationships, and commodification of human life. Through the process of asexual reproduction, organisms such as bacteria (and some plants) create offspring that are genetically identical to the parent.

Genetically modified organisms

Genetically modified organisms, genome who's been engineered in a laboratory to meet physiological traits. Gmos are made every day for mainly foods and animals. Gmos are processed in labs and are created to be used on animals and fertilizers.

Stem cells

Stem cell, an undifferentiated cell that can divide to produce some offspring cells that continue as stem cells and some cells that are destined to differentiate (become specialized). In 2009 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the first clinical trial designed to test a human embryonic stem cell-based therapy, but the trial was halted in late 2011 because of a lack of funding and a change in lead American biotech company Geron’s business directives.

DNA fingerprinting

DNA fingerprinting, also called DNA typing, DNA profiling, genetic fingerprinting, genotyping, or identity testing, in genetics, method of isolating and identifying variable elements within the base-pair sequence of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). An early use of DNA fingerprinting was in legal disputes, notably to help solve crimes and to determine paternity. The technique was challenged, however, over concerns about sample contamination, faulty preparation procedures, and erroneous interpretation of the results.

Polymerase chain reaction

Polymerase chain reaction, (PCR), a technique used to make numerous copies of a specific segment of DNA quickly and accurately. The PCR technique is based on the natural processes a cell uses to replicate a new DNA strand. Only a few biological ingredients are needed for PCR. PCR is a three-step process that is carried out in repeated cycles. The initial step is the denaturation, or separation, of the two strands of the DNA molecule. This is accomplished by heating the starting material to temperatures of about 95° C (203° F). Each strand is a template on which a new strand is built. In the second step the temperature is reduced to about 55° C (131° F) so that the primers can anneal to the template.

Plasmids

Plasmid, in microbiology, an extrachromosomal genetic element that occurs in many bacterial strains. Plasmids are circular deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules that replicate independently of the bacterial chromosome. They are not essential for the bacterium but may confer a selective advantage. Plasmids are well suited to genetic engineering in other ways. Their antibiotic resistance genes, for example, prove useful in identifying those bacterial cells that have taken up the recombinant DNA molecule in a high background of untransformed cells (transformation frequencies are only about 1 out of every 100,000 cells).

Citations

http://school.eb.com.scsl.idm.oclc.ohttp://school.eb.com.scsl.idm.oclc.org/levels/high/article/plasmid/60331rg/levels/high/article/plasmid/60331

Credits:

Created with images by mknowles - "Lego DNA" • beckstei - "What did the cloned sheep say to the other sheep? I am ewe." • artursfoto - "modified tomato genetically"

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