Below is a punnet square. A punnet square is used to determine a lot of things but in this case it is used to determine eye color and you may ask yourself how do I use? The way you use it is you put a letter for a trait so in this case they put a B for brown and a b for blue and then the put the traits on both sides of the square like shown below. Then you bring both down to a square so the first square is BB that means a brown eye But what if it is a Bb that means it will be brown because the big B is a dominant trait so a dominant trait always win. So now you now hot to use a punnet square when you look at this you see the offspring has a 25% of blue eyes and 75 brown.
Dominance everybody wants to dominant but what happens when you take a trait that is not dominant and a trait that is dominant. you get incomplete dominance and a prime example of this in flowers, so if you took two red flowers which is dominant traits you get a red flower. if you take two white flowers you get a white flower. What happens when you put a white and red together you get a pink flower and this is called incomplete dominats. it kinda like mixing colors when you mix colors you don't get the same color you get a mix of colors. This can also happen with humans and eye color sometimes
The picture above are chromosomes. We have 46 pairs of them that make a person them selves. We get 23 pairs from our mother and 23 pairs from out father. These pair can also carrier traits but the autosomes are one of the things that as a father or mother they have to worry about because they can can pass down diseases or disorders these can range from Asperger , cancer and even heart disease. the way these diseases and disorders are expressed are by dominant and recessive traits.
There are 8 different blood types. To find the blood type in your kids, you can use a punnet square to find it. All you have to do is the same process A quick little fact about blood types is that AB- being the rarest blood type there are a lot of theories like one saying that you have alien blood. Which can be very far fetch but it there and it may be true!!!!!
sickle cell anemia is caused by a substitution in the beta-hemoglobin gene, which alters a single amino acid in the protein produced. change a codon to one that encodes the same amino acid and causes no change in the protein produced. These are called silent mutations.
Nondisjunction in meiosis I occurs during anaphase I when one pair of homologous chromosomes fails to separate.
Trisomy is used to describe the presence of three chromosomes, rather than the usual pair of chromosomes. For example, if a baby is born with three #21 chromosomes, rather than the usual pair, the baby would be said to have trisomy 21.
Meiosis is the process when sperm cells fertilize the Fergus.
Some examples of diploids are skin, blood, and muscle cells.
Reproductive cells in animals, called gametes, are examples of haploid cells.
Crossing over or recombination adds more genes to the gene pool.