Fishing Industry by: jas khaira

“How do we continue to manage this resource today

so we don’t compromise future generations ability to use the resource?”


The fish industry is one of the main industry in Canada. It has been a big part of Canada's industries and has really impacted greatly toward the Canadian economy.

Catching fish

The fish industry is filled with large companies that catch fish. these fish are caught in Canada's lakes, sea's, and oceans. They are caught all throughout Canada's bodies of water from coast to coast. the industry uses a process called bottom trawling. This process uses huge nets from large boats to captures fish. These large boats come into the lakes and other bodies of waters and then let out their large nets into the water. Once the nets are dropped down into the water, the nets drag on the bottom of the waters of bodies and then slowly capture their fish. This process can capture thousands of fish and can be used to capture large amounts of fish.

fish were caught and are placed in buckets

Science in the Fish

Before we can catch the fish and eat it, there is another process that happens for these fish to even be alive. But this all starts from the plants and algae in the water. This is were photosynthesis and cellular respiration are used. The process is started with photosynthesis. This is when stomata (pores) in the plants take in carbon dioxide, roots from the plants take in water, and when the plants absorb light from the sun. This all first takes of in the leaves of the plants that are made up of cells. In these cells are chlorophyll, the green chemical. All the intake of the products have a job. The income of light from the chlorophyll is used to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The oxygen is then released into the atmosphere and we then use it for ourselves. The hydrogen and carbon dioxide is used to make glucose or food for the plants. However there are two stages of photosynthesis's, light dependent and calvin cycle. Light dependent reactions happen in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplasts and take place only when light is available. In this process light energy is converted to chemical energy, Chlorophyll absorb energy from sunlight. This energy is transferred to the photosystems responsible for photosynthesis Water is used to provide electrons and hydrogen ions but also produces oxygen. The electrons and hydrogen ions are used to create ATP (a energy storage) and NADPH (is an electron carrier). The calvin cycle uses the ATP and NADPH from the first stage is then used to make glucose. After the full process of photosynthesis, cellular respiration begins. The process of cellular respiration is when cells use oxygen from photosynthesis to produce food for the other plants and animals. After that you will think that has nothing to do with the fish. But really this is the starting of the energy transfer to the fish. Once these fish eat plants and algae in the water the energy or glucose is transfer to the fish. Without this "science" there will be no fish holding up the fish industry.

Fish Biodiversity In Canada

Throughout Canada there are many fish that are Incorporated in the fish industry. From coast to coast there are different fish specifically for the characteristics of the ecosystems. Some main fish located in Canada are:

Brook trout: Average size is 8 to 12 inches in small streams, 1 to 3 lbs in inland lakes, Prefers temperatures below 20°C in clean, live in well-oxygenated lakes and rivers, Spawns in fall over upwelling areas of gravel in lakes and stream, lives about five years and Live From southern Ontario to Hudson Bay tributaries

Lake trout: Average size: Two to 10 lbs (0.9 to 4.5 kg), Temperature and habitat Around 10°C in clear, deep lakes, Live in fall over boulders or rubble shoals in lakes, Can live 20 years or longer, live in Much of Ontario, except James Bay and Hudson Bay Lowlands

Muskie: Average sizes 10 to 20 lbs,Temperature and habitat Often found in water up to 25.5°C but big muskie, like big northern pike, prefer cooler water,Optimum spawning temperature is 12.8°C,Lives in a range of habitats, from small lakes to the Great Lakes, usually near cover or structure, but will suspend over deeper water,Spawns in spring later than northern pike in many of the same vegetated flooded areas,Range Extreme northwestern Ontario and roughly south from Sault Ste Marie

Panfish: BLACK CRAPPIE,Spawn in shallow, weedy areas when water temperatures reach 20°C usually May through June, Biology: Males guard eggs and fry, For the most of the year suspend offshore but then move to edge of weedlines, points, or shoals, or rise to surface to feed in low-light conditions, Range Lower Northwestern Ontario, the Great Lakes and connecting waters to Georgian Bay and the North Channel, Spreading inland north to Parry Sound through connecting systems

YELLOW PERCH: Average size To .75 lb, Temperature and habitat: Summer habitat ranges from weedy areas to rock/sand/rubble shoals to mossy mud flats, Preferred water temperature is 20°C, Spawn in early spring, scattering eggs in shallow water around vegetation and submerged wood, Ontario roughly south of James Bay and the Upper Albany River

NORTHERN PIKE: Between 4 and 10 lbs, Prefers water around 15.5°C on rocky reefs and the edges of weed beds, Spawns in flooded areas and back bays in spring, Throughout Ontario in lakes and rivers of all sizes

SALMON: Chinooks 10 to 30 lbs, Chinook and coho 10 to 12.7°C, Spawning runs in the Great Lakes from early September to November, All of Ontario's Great Lakes

SMALLMOUTH BASS: 1 to 3.5 lbs, Live in deeper water often around rocks, sand, or gravel areas, prefer water temperatures under 21°C, Spawn in late May and June, deposit eggs in shallow, gravelly areas, Species range from Manitoba eastward along the north shore of Lake Superior, continuing as far north as Temiskaming, and then south

LARGEMOUTH BASS: 1.5 to 4 lbs, Inhabit shallow, warm water bodies with aquatic vegetation, submerged wood, man-made cover, and rocks, Prefer 26 to 27°C water, Spawn in late May and June, Largemouth prefer vegetated, quiet bays, Species range from Manitoba eastward along the north shore of Lake Superior, continuing as far north as Temiskaming

WALLEYE: Between 1.5 and 3 lbs, Prefers stained waters in 15.5 to 21°C, range, usually on hard, rocky bottoms, and weed beds in shallow, fertile lakes, Spawns after ice-out in rocky rivers and over wind-swept, rubble-strewn shoals and shorelines, Throughout Ontario

CARP: 8 to 15 lbs, Live in Shallow, weedy, warm water over a mud bottom, Spawn near shore in frantic groups in early summer as water temperatures hit 17.2°C, Most of southern Ontario

CHANNEL CATFISH: 2 to 4 lbs, Live in Relatively cool, clear, deeper water with sand, gravel, or rubble bottoms in mid- to large river systems and lakes, Spawns in late spring-early summer when water temperatures between 23.9 to 29.5°C, Mainly inhabits lower Great Lakes through Lake Huron and east into Ottawa River drainage., Some in lower northwest

WHITEFISH: 4 lbs, Can be found in big cold-water rivers and lakes, generally feed on or near bottom, Spawns during the fall, Mainly in cold northern lakes, Thrives in many of the Great Lakes as well

Fish industry dependence

The fish industry has given money and food for Canadians. From exporting to jobs for the people, the fish industry is doing great. In 2014, Canada exported $4.9 billion of fish products which was an increase of $517 million from 2013. With that rate of increase, the fish industry can become a number one exporting industry. With our next door neighbours, Usa has took up 63% of Canadian fish exports at a value of $3.1 billion in 2014. The Republic of China and European Union also important export countries in 2014 accounting for $508 million and $459 million worth of exports and these two markets accounted for 19 percent of total Canadian fish exports worldwide. With huge export numbers year by year we are becoming more dependent and dependent. Canada’s largest species that were exported were lobster, snow/queen crab, shrimp and farmed Atlantic salmon. in 2014 they represented about 63 percent ($3.1 billion) of total value and 46 percent (262 thousand tonnes) of total volume of fish. Other than just exporting, the industry has become dependent on the job stand of view too. Canada's commercial fishing and aquaculture fishing provide more than 80,000 jobs to Canadians and supporting thousands of families. About 76,000 Canadians make living from fishing and fishing-related activities. Along the Atlantic coast 1000 communities have mainly dependent on the fisheries. In 2014 Newfoundland and labrador supported 9360 jobs, PEI supported 4428 jobs, nova scotia supported 19231 jobs, new brunswick supported 15733 jobs, quebec supported 4604 jobs, ontario supported 1497 jobs, and bc supported 9977 jobs. with huge amount of jobs supported in Canada there are huge opportunities for people to work in this industry because it is till growing and growing. With jobs growing and so as the industry so is the GDP. The income from this industry growing greatly it has really put a good impact toward the GDP. Aquaculture industry generates over $1 billion in GDP and between 2013 and 2014, total Canadian GDP increased 2% and then by an extra 1% in 2015. Total landings from marine commercial fishing in Canada valued at $1.89 billion (932 thousand tonnes) in 2008 and represents a $70 million (-4%) decrease compared to 2007 which really helped the GDP.

Issues in the industry

Besides the money the industry comes with some issues, environmentally and socially. Environmentally overfishing and bottom trawling are huge. They are the two main that really impact the environment and are created by us humans. Overfishing happens when more fish are caught than the population can replace through natural reproduction. Us people are trying to increase the fishing industry by fishing to the extremes but unsustainable fishing practices are pushing many fish stocks to the point of collapse. The act of overfishing is happening in Canada and we are impacting our own selves. If we know that more than 85% of the worlds fisheries were pushed to the act of overfishing and we are then using management plans to restore them, why do we still do it in Canada. Well people just want money and people are not thinking that it will the come back and haunt them. When we tend to overfish we impact the biodiversity in these ecosystems. A example like the overfishing of the cod, the fish or other animal that ate it didn't have any food because of the overfishing. Also whatever the cod ate over populated. When we didn't have the biodiversity of the different types of fish when the cod had been affected, everyone was impacted and then so is the ecosystem. Its like if we were to take away the sun, we won't have any energy income for us to use. However in overfishing like the cod, it really impacts biodiversity and the ecosystems to change.

Bottom Trawling

Bottom trawling is happening all over Canada and is another environmental issue that we have created. Bottom trawling is a fishing industry method that uses enormous nets weighed down with heavy ballast are dragged along the sea floor raking up or crushing everything in their way, from fish to ancient coral. This is Often used by industrial boats in the high seas, sometimes regulated in territorial waters, this practice, accused of having contributed to overfishing. The biggest nets used for bottom trawling have a mouth the size of a rugby pitch and leave scars on the seabed more than 4 kilo meters long. In this process the habitat where fish find food and shelter, are crushed and flattened and many species including those at risk of extinction, are accidentally caught and then thrown back into the sea, often already dead. This will also cause a impact to biodiversity because when we take certain fish and other almost extinct fish with them from a certain area, those fish can become actually extinct and other fish's will again over populate because nothing is eating them. Other than killing other fish's around the ones being caught, Bottom trawling churns up sediment (sometimes toxic) making turbid water inhospitable to life. This means sometimes because of bottom trawling other fish's aren't caught with the nets but the heavy nets kill habitats and that will actually eventually kill fish to. Eventually bottom trawling becomes a big issue because they need big nets to catch fish but they are also impacting the environment.

Bioaccumulation and bio magnification

Bioaccumulation and bio magnification are impacts that we don't notice but will in the future. These are socially impacting us and soon if we don't notice whats happening to our fish we will get in trouble. This is the impact of us littering. When we through toxics and chemicals into our waters, we don't notice but these chemicals and toxics are getting sea plants and fish. A example like the Bp oil spill. The toxic spilled into our water but we didn't think it will still impact us after we clean the spill. But these chemicals travel down to aquatic plants and they take these toxins in. For example out of 10 plants all of them have 1 toxic, the fish will eat more than one toxic plant and gain that many toxics. Now when they get the toxics traveled to them we eat the fish and then we get toxics in our bodies and that can cause a lot of damage. After taking disturbed and non disturbed bodies of waters i have identified the differences with Bioaccumulation and bio magnification.

Total chlorine- is the two chlorines mixed together so combined and free chlorine make total chlorine

Free chlorine- is a chemical that test the chlorine levels in water

Total hardness- amount of dissolved calcium and magnesium in the water

Total alkalinity- measure of water’s ability to neutralize acids

pH- measure the acidity and alkalinity: 7 is neutral meaning the two types of ions are in balance, so the substance is neither acidic nor alkaline; numbers below 7 are acidic; Values above 7 are alkaline, with 14 being the most alkaline; its important because pH level is a measure of the hydrogen ions representing the acidity or alkalinity of a solution.

Formula for chlorine is fc+cc=tc

Which Question I will Answer?

What's the difference between human impacted bodies of water and non impacted bodies of water?

Hypothesis (Prediction or Educated Guess about one of the questions above – with a reason): I think the impacted body of water (loafers lake water and the pond water) will consist in low pH, many chlorines, an ok total alkalinity and hardness. This is because of us humans impacting it negatively with pollution in our waters. Us throwing chemicals like chlorine into our waters will come back to us with Bioaccumulation and bio magnification if the fish intake the toxic. The non impacted body of water will be the opposite because there is nothing harming the water other than the animal waste.

Materials (Apparatus):

- Pencil

- Paper

- Loafers lake water (impacted by humans)

- Pond water ( impacted by humans)

- School water (non impacted)

- 3 water quality test strips

Procedure (Step by Step Directions):

1. Grab loafers lake water

2. Grab water quality test strips and dip it into the water

3. After a couple seconds take the strip out and review the strip

4. Record your observations

5. Grab pond water

6. Add the quality test strips and add it to the water

7. After a couple seconds take the strip out and review it

8. Record your observations

9. Grab school water

10. Grab water quality strips and dip them in the water

11. After a couple seconds take the strip and review it

12. Record you observations

Data Analysis (Compare the Data – what trends or patterns do you see):

Lake water

- 7.2 pH

- 180ppm (CaCO3) total alkalinity

- 250ppm(15) total hardness (CaCO3) grains per gallon

- Total chlorine 0ppm

- Free chlorine 0ppm

- Very dirty with garbage

Pond water

- pH 8.4

- 180ppm (CaCO3) total alkalinity

- 425ppm(25) (CaCO3)total hardness

- 0ppm total chlorine

- 0 ppm free chlorine

- Brownish colour

School water

- 7.2 pH

- 80ppm (CaCO3) total alkalinity

- Total hardness (CaCO3)250ppm(15)

- 0ppm free chlorine

- 0ppm total chorine

- Clear

Conclusions (do you accept or refute your hypothesis and why): In conclusion i was right and wrong. Human impacted body of water was a bit worse than the non impacted body of water, but it was still bad. I was right because of water pollution the impacted body of water will be different and it was. But were i got wrong was, it wasn't that much worse. The didn't consist is any toxics but was worse. What we don't know is, these human impacted bodies of water are in our habitats and this is an another example of Bioaccumulation and bio magnification. The toxics we litter will come back in our water and impact us. we don't realize the golden rule is a affect in the waters to. Treat animals the way you want to be treated. what ever we do in our habitats will come back. In the long term run in how we are increasing our waste, the ecosystems won't be so good. animals will die of eating metals and garbage, fishes will get toxics and the fish industry will come down. so if we think now and act we will help ourselves in the future.

How can we fix this

To fix these issues we need to manage our waters. Government of Canada made national announcements for the Action Plan for Clean Water in 2007 and 2008. They included the ocean action plan which was for the Plan of Action for Drinking Water, clean-up funding for water bodies and wastewater regulations. This what the government is trying to enforce but i have made my own action plan for the government. First of we need to protect our waters. Thousands of fisheries from other countries come in and take our fish. we don't know they are there so they tend to overfish. That isn't ok. we should enforcers protecting our land for our fish. Secondly we need test every other month to find if fish are getting overfished or not so we can protect those areas so those fish can reproduce. Thirdly we need huge fines for littering. we have people littering all the time but nobody really cares. so we need that to be enforced. Finally, we need to find different methods to get our fish. Bottom trawling has been working for years but has been destroying for years and we need to stop these fisheries. In conclusion that is my main plan that i think if the government should take in place to manage our industry and waters.


In conclusion the fish industry has really been great but bad to. But if we take action us and ecosystems we be fine. If we change our paths the industry will grow and grow but first we have to act now.

Created By
Jas Khaira


Created with images by Victoria Reay - "Fish" • _paVan_ - "Fish Fresh Catch" • Unsplash - "fish catch box" • NeilsPhotography - "Batu Bolong" • obbino - "POLLUTION" • Thanks for over 2 million views!! - "Seagulls on the Go!!" • Photographing Travis - "Water"

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