Chapter 15 by sebastian hicks

Section 1: Postwar Uncertainty

A New Revolution in Science

Impact of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity - german born physicist named Albert Einstein offered new ideas on space, time, energy, and matter. The main theory Einstein came up with was the theory of relativity

Influence of Freudian Psychology - next came Sigmuned Freud who treated patients with psychological problems. He then made a theory about the human mind. The theory said that much of human behavior is irrational, or beyond reason this lowered peoples faith in reason. By the 1920's his theory was influence to everyone.

Literature in the 1920s

Writers Reflect Society’s - War made an impression on many writers. Frank Kafka wrote novel about people caught in threatening situations they can not understand or escape.

Thinkers React to Uncertainties - Thinkers looked to existentialism. This is the belief that life has no meaning each person creates his own meaning. Jean Paul Sartre was a major leader of this movement. This had a great effect on politics in Italy and Germany in the 20's.

Revolutions in the Arts

Artists Rebel Against Tradition - Artest wanted to depict world of emotion and Imagination instead of showing realistic. The Surrealism art movement was to link the world of dreams with the real world.

Composers Try New Styles - composers move away from traditional music. Then the music style jazz came. Jazz Swept through much of Europe and the United States.

Society Challenges Convention

Women’s Roles Change - War gave women the chance to take on new roles. This also helped give them the right to vote. Women also started wearing looser clothes. They also started doing many things they didn't before like drink and smoke in public.

Technological Advances Improve Life

The Automobile Alters Society - automobiles benefited greatly from the war thro innovations. After the war the prices dropped so that the middle class could afford and the amount produced increased greatly.this lead to more people traveling. It also changed where people lived and worked.

Airplanes Transform Travel - international air travel became after the war. Two British pilots were the first to traveled across the Atlantic in 1927. in the 1920's is when the airlines started up.

Radio and Movies Dominate Popular Entertainment - in 1920 the first commercial radio station it was KDKA in Pittsburgh. The radio mania swept over the US. Movies also came in 1920 many countries started to make movies during this time. This was the time that the sound was invented.

Section 2 : A Worldwide Depression

Postwar Europe

Unstable New Democracies - The war's end brung many more new democracy. From 1914 o 1928 Europe's last rulers where brought down. The new Democracies had a large number of political parties which made hard for any to win office. This lead to Coalition Government this was temporary alliance of many parties to form a majority because the parties did not agree the alliances never lasted very long periods of time. This also made it hard for the country to develop a strong leadership. Soon Voters gave up democratic government for strong leadership.

The Weimar Republic

Inflation Causes Crisis in Germany - Germany faced large Economic problems they did not increase there tax during the war. This made them unable to pay for the Expenses of the war. The Germans then print more money but it quickly last it value. The German people need much more money after the bread cost 160 marks compared to 1 before the war.

Attempts at Economic Stability - Germany did survive this time thanks to the international committee. The head of which was a American Banker by the name Charles Dawes who made the Dawes Plan. This plan Gave Germany $200 million in the form of a loan and gave Germany more realistic schedule for paying its war debts.

Efforts at a Lasting Peace - Things did get better for Germany and soon the foreign minister tried to improve relationships with France. They met in Locarno, Switzerland and signed A treat that said they would never make war with each other again. It was then admitted into the League of Nations. Then in 1928 almost every country in the world pledged to renounce war there was no way to enforce this thou.

Financial Collapse

A Flawed U.S. Economy - The US economies weakness where found. First was uneven distribution of wealth, then was overproduction, next was that many Americans where buying very little. Soon many farms and factories where forced to close down.

The Stock Market Crashes - 1929 Stokes where booming and the middle class started to buy them. The way the middle class afforded them was through loans this worked antill stokes lost there value leaving he people no money to pay of the loans.

The Great Depression

A Global Depression - The collapse of the American Economy sent shock waves around the world. Americans demanded there over seas loans to be payed and investors took all there money out of Europe. Congress then placed high tariffs on all imported goods so AMerican money would stay in America. This Worsend the US condition and countries that relied on it.

Effects Throughout the World - Because of war debts and American loans Germany and Austria where hit hard when US economy collapsed. Austria's largest bank failed. Asia both farmers and urban workers suffered as exports value fell in 1929 throu 1931.

The World Confronts the Crisis

Britain Takes Steps to Improve Its Economy - Britain was severely hit by the depression. To meet it Britain's voters elected a multiparty coalition known as the National Government. It passed protective tariffs, increased taxes, and regulated the currency. It also encouraged new factories. By 1937 unemployment was halved.

France Responds to Economic Crisis - France had a more self-sufficient economy. Why not greatly affected by collapse still France had one million French workers unemployed.

Socialist Governments Find Solutions - Socialist governments in the Scandinavian countries of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway also met the challenge of economic crisis and they where successful. They did this with tradition of cooperative community action.

Recovery in the United States - In 1932 Franklin Roosevelt was elected. He immediately began to make programs of government reform called the New Deal. Regulations were made to reform the stock market and the banks. In time this did work.

Section 3: Fascism Rises in Europe

Fascism’s Rise in Italy

Mussolini Takes Control - Fascism was militant political movement that emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader. This rose in Italy and was fueled by not winning territory in 1919 Paris Peace Conference. A newspaper editor and politician named Benito Mussolini was the leader of this movement. The fascists attacked people on the streets that opposed them. Then they marched on Rome and demanded Mussolini was put in charge. Why having much power Mussolini did not have total control.

Hitler Rises to Power in Germany

Ja means yes

The Rise of the Nazis - Hitler settled in Munich in 1919 and joined a right-wing political Group called Nazi. He became leader of the Group through his Organization and speaking skills. Hitler inspired by Mussolini's march tried the same but failed. After Hitler revived the Nazi Party in 1924. Most people ignored Hitler until The Great Depression in America. The Depression caused Germany to collapse. They then turned to Hitler hoping for firm leadership.

Hitler Becomes Chancellor

The Führer Is Supreme - Hitler turned all media into propaganda to win praise for his leadership. He then Twisted Friedrich Nietzsche philosophy to support his use of brute force.

Hitler Makes War on the Jews - A hatred of Jews, or anti-Semitism, was a big part of Nazi Ideology. They where used as scapegoats for all Germany's Troubles. Starting in 1933 Nazi's started passing laws Depriving Jews of there rights. November 9, 1938, Nazis Destroyed Jews property in what is called Kristallnacht. This started the process of eliminating the Jew from Germany.

Section 4: Aggressors Invade Nations

Japan Seeks an Empire

Militarists Take Control of Japan - The Japanese blamed the government for the effects of The Depression. this let Military leaders gain support quickly. They did not try to form a new way of government. They kept Emperor Hirohito in power as head of state. He wanted to solve the country's problems through foreign expansion. They planned a Pacific empire.

Japan Invades Manchuria - In 1931 Japan seized Manchuria and set up a puppet government. The League of Nations protested this but Japan ignored them and with drew from the League.

Japan Invades China - Four years later a full Scale War broke out between Japan and China. Japan's forces swept in to North China. Despite China's numbers Japans solders quickly beat them. Japan took over China in 1937 but China still fought back in the conquered lands.

European Aggressors on the March

Mussolini Attacks Ethiopia - Ethiopia was one of Africa's independent nations. Italy Attempted to invade them in the 1890s but failed. This time they did not thou Ethiopia was no match with there spears to Italian Tanks, Airplanes, and guns. They quickly asked The League for help but it did nothing. This was in the hope to keep peace in Europe.

Hitler Defies Versailles Treaty - In 1935 Fuhrer announced it would not follow the Versailles Treaty. They Increased the army past the limit placed then they placed troops on the French bored which was not allowed. Soon After Hitler and Mussolini made a agreement that allied Germany, Italy, and Japan.

Civil War Erupts in Spain - Spain's people Revolted in 1036 because there had been many crises. This lasted for three years with little help the Republicans resistance collapsed.

Democratic Nations Try to Preserve Peace

United States Follows an Isolationist Policy - in 1935 Congress passed three Neutrality Acts that banned loans and trade of arms with nations at war.

The German Reich Expands - In 1037 Hitler announced that he planed to absorb Austria and Czechoslovakia into the Third Reich. This was prohibited it was done any ways. Czechoslovakia hover did not go with out a fight and Asked France for help.

Britain and France Again Choose Appeasement - A meeting was held why Britain was not on bored but its prime minister gave Germany what it wanted but said it could not take over Czechoslovakia completely. Soon after Germany took Czechoslovakia.

Nazis and Soviets Sign Nonaggression Pact - Britain and France Ask The Soviet Union to help them stop hitler {which could been done a long time ago}. Why talking to Britain and France the Soviet Union also talked to Germany and made a pact that they would not attack each other.

Credits:

Created with images by CGoulao - "Old car" • janeb13 - "albert einstein portrait theoretician physician" • WerbeFabrik - "music saxophone instrument" • shock264 - "Antique car" • sfjalar - "Franklin D. Roosevelt" • billium12 - "ja1935aa" • Quad Dimensional Pictures - "LAY OF THE (IS)LAND: US ARMY JAPAN COMMANDING GENERAL TOURS U.S. INSTALLATIONS, VISITS JSDF LEADERSHIP"

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