Section 1; Postwar Uncertainty
A New Revolution in Science: Albert Einstein and Sigmund Freud has a big impact in the 20 century.
Einstein's Theory: while the speed of light is constant, others things that seem constant, such as space and time are not. Space and time can change when measured relative to an object moving near the speed of light—about 186,000 miles per second. This theory was called the Theory of Relativity.
Literature in the 1920
After wwi writers and philosophers started to question their traditional religious beliefs. They started to make disturbing visions of the future to help with their anxiety. The war and all of the horrible things that happened in it was very good thing for writers to write about. There were many famous books that came from it.
Revolution in the Arts
Paintings and music started to change before the war. After the war it changed a lot. Artist started using used bold colors and exaggerated forms, breaking away from realistic styles. Painters wanted to show all the emotion in the world after the war through their art.
After wwi, jazz music became popular in the united states. It was developed by African Americans, it went to New Orleans, Memphis, and Chicago. The loose beat of jazz was a new freedom age.
Society Challenges Convention
Young people were starting to break away from modern values. Women were starting to take on new roles, and wanted to gain the right to vote. Women also started wearing makeup and fixing their hair differently.
Technological Advances Improve Life
They stated to advance in car like making air filled tires, and better engines, headlights, and made them look better on the outside. Airplanes also improved two British Pilots made it across the Atlantic. Only the rich people were able to afford air travel at first. Amelia Earhart in 1932 became the first women to fly solo. Movies and Radio broadcast became popular for entertainment. Many hollywood movies were silent movies.
Section 2: A Worldwide Depression
Europe's rulers were overthrown. Russia had a new government, The Provisional Government. But it fell to a Communist dictatorship within months. For the first time, European nations had democratic governments. Because there were so many changes going on, it made it hard to keep a steady government. Some people wanted a strong authoritarian leadership instead of a democratic leadership.
The Weimar Republic
Germany's new democratic government was called the Weimar Republic. It had a bad weakness from start to finish. Postwar Germany had several major political parties. Many people blamed the Weimar Republic on the Versailles Treaty. During wwi, germany did not have enough money to pay for their wartime taxes. So they printed off money, but that money lost its value fast, so the cost of everything went up. But by 1929, they had fixed the problem and people were able to get food and stuff at a reasonable cost. In 1928, Germany promised france and belgium that they would never cause war between them again. Starting "spirit of Lacarno"
In 1929 when America's economy weakened, the whole world's economic system collapse. Factories in America were turning out nearly half of the world's industrial goods. Many people lost their jobs, families were very poor. On october 29 the market collapsed because stock prices were down and everyone wanted to sell, but no one wanted to buy.
The Great Depression
In 1932, factory production had been cut in half, many banks closed, people's money in their savings accounts were gone, and the bank had no money to pay them back. Farmers who owed the bank money lost their land. By 1933 one-fourth of Americans lost their jobs. Other countries who depended on American goods suffered. World trade dropped 65%. Because of war debts and depending on American loans and investments, Germany Austria, Asia, and Latin America were hit hard.
The World Confronts the Crisis
Even though some countries weren't hit as hard as others from the depression, they were all hit in their own ways. Britain was hit hard, it increased taxes, and regulated the currency, lowered interest rates to encourage industrial growth. They had a slow but steady recovery. France was less dependant on foreign trade and more agricultural after the depression. One million french people were unemployed. In the United States in 1932, they had their first presidential election after the election. Roosevelt started a reform that he called the New Deal and gave jobs to many americans.
Section 3: Fascism Rises in Europe
Fascism's Rise in Italy
Fascism was a new militant political movement that emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to its leaders. Fascism started in Italy, a newspaper editor and politician promised to reduce Italy's economy and give it a strong leadership. His name was Benito Mussolini. King victor emmanuel II put Mussolini in charge because he felt it was the best thing to do for his dynasty.
Hitler Rises to Power in Germany
Hitler was in a political group in Italy that thought that Germany needed to overturn the Treaty of Versailles. The party was called the National Socialist German Workers' Party. It formed a brand of Fascism called Nazism. Hitler became the leader of the Nazi party. He said that non-aryans needed to be killed. That was people like the Jews, Slavs, Gypsies. He said that Germany was overcrowded and needed more living space. He promised to get space by taking over Eastern Europe and Russia. When American loans stopped, Germany's economy collapsed and since the people were confused and scared, they turned to Hitler.
Hitler Becomes Chancellor
In 1933 Hitler became chancellor. He turned Germany into a totalitarian state. He fixed the number of unemployment from 6 million to 1.6 million. Hitler wanted to control every. Aspect of German life. No one was allowed to critize the Nazis or their form of government. Children had to join Hitler Youth for boys, and League of German Girls. Although Jews were less than one % of German population, Hitler wanted all of them gone. Laws were passed that took away all Jews rights.
Section 4: Aggressors Invade Nations
Japan Seeks an Empire
In the 1920's Japan became democratic. They signed a treaty agreeing to respect China's borders. Japan's military were extreme nationalist. Even though they had the treaty about China's borders, they still took over Manchuria. Japan was a part of the League of Nations and because they protested against Japan, they withdrew from the league. They ended up taking over northern China.
Mussolini planned to take over Ethiopia because Italy was not able to do so in the 1890's. In Germany, had the the Versailles treaty undone. France and Britain were unpleased with Hitler but didn't go to war and decided to keep peace. Germany, Italy, and Japan became the axis powers
Democratic Nations Try to Preserve Peace
Because of the Great Depression with economic problems, and the horrors of World War 1, many people did not want to go to war again. So Britain, France, and The United States decided to try and keep peace. Hitler's power kept getting worse and he started to take over Czechoslovakia and Austria. Mussolini seized Albania. Then France and Britain asked the Soviet Union to join them in defeating Hitler. Then starting wwii.