The Dred Scott decision 1857- Dred Scott was a slave who traveled to Illinois and Minnesota with his master. He claimed he should be freed because that he was in free territory. The case went to the Supreme court and the chief justice disagreed and said Dred Scott was still a slave because he was owned by his master.
The Emancipation Proclamation 1863
The Emancipation Proclamation 1863- Abraham Lincoln declared that all slave are free in confederate states, but the union had no power over the confederate. Lincoln demanded an end to slavery, but it was not effective.
13th amendment 1865- After the civil war, Lincoln wanted to end slavery everywhere in United states. He made the 13th amendment in order to make this happen. It officially banned slavery.
14th amendment 1868- During the Dred Scott case, Chief Justice said that no slaves should be citizens. The amendment said anyone could be a citizen even if they weren't born in the US.
15th Amendment 1870- Before this African American men were not allowed to vote in elections. It didn't matter if they were every slaves or weren't. The 15th Amendment let any man of any race vote.
Plessy vs. Ferguson 1896- The Supreme Court ruled that segregation was okay as long as there were equal "rights" and facilities as others. There would be separate water fountains, bathrooms, medical care, and schools.
Brown vs. Board of Education 1954
Brown vs. Board of Education 1954- Supreme Court here ruled that segregation was unconstitutional and made it possible for black and white students to go to school together.
Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955
Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955- In Alabama and other places in the US there were separate seats on the bus for black and white people. Rosa Parks, a black women, refused to give up her seat for a white man. She was arrested and had to go to jail. African Americans boycotted, and refused to ride the city buses for over a year. On December 21, 1956 the Supreme Court declared that segregated bus rules were unconstitutional.
Little Rock Nine 1957- Although the Supreme Court declared segregation in public schools was unconstitutional, some schools didn't allow black students to attend school with white. In 1957 nine black students tried to go to Little Rock Central High School. The governor of Arkansas tried to stop this and called the National Guard. The president at the time Eisenhower overruled this.
Sit ins 1960- Restaurants and lunch counters were still segregated. On February 1, 1960 four black college students did a sit in in Greensboro, North Carolina. The counters were only for white people. The restaurant wouldn't serve the black students. The students refused and didn't get up. This was another way to protest peacefully against segregation.
Ruby Bridges 1960- In New Orleans schools were still segregated. Ruby Bridges was a first grade student chosen to attend a previously white school. She and her mom were escorted by federal marshals. some of the white students were pulled out, but ruby continued to go to the school and graduated high school.
Freedom Riders 1961- Freedom Riders were people who rode buses in areas of the South that were segregated to protest and challenge the laws. The freedom Riders were many different people and races who thought that segregation was wrong.
James Meredith 1962- At the time some colleges were segregated. James Meredith applied and got accepted in University of Mississippi. When the school found out his race they rejected his application. The Supreme Court said that he could attend the school, but the entrance was blocked when he arrived at the college. Later on he was able to successfully go to school at University of Mississippi and graduated with a degree in political science.
"I have a Dream" Speech 1963
"I have a Dream" Speech 1963- Martin Luther King Jr. announced his speech in August to over 250,000 people. He told them they should end racism and encouraged the President to pass laws against discrimination.