Protein Synthesis ALicia CLine

Roles of DNA, mRNA, tRNA, rRNA:

  • DNA: is the blueprint of life
  • mRNA: act as an messenger
  • tRNA: transfers amino acids to ribosomes as specified by codons in the mRNA.
  • rRNA: associate with a set of proteins to form ribosomes

Steps DNA replication (to include DNA helicase, where it is located)

  • DNA replication is located in the nucleus
  • Step 1: The helicase"unzip's" the double helix structure of the DNA molecule.
  • Step 2: Replicates again into 2 daughter cells
  • Step 3: Helicase "unzip's" the structure again
  • Step 4: Send the mRNA out

Steps in transcription, ribosomes, codons Where is it located

  • Transcription is located in the nucleus
  • Step 1: Enzymes unzip the molecule of DNA
  • Step 2: Free RNA nucleotides form base pairs with their complimentary nucleotides of DNA
  • Step 3: The mRNA strand leaves the nucleus.

Steps in translation, Where is it located? Picture of what it looks like

  • Translation is located in the cytoplasm
  • Step 1: A ribosome attaches to the mRNA strand. A tRNA anticodon matches with the mRNA codon
  • Step 2: Usually first codon is AUG. The ribosome then slides over one codon on the mRNA
  • Step 3: The new tRNA molecule carrying another amino acid pairs with the second mRNA codon.
  • Step 4: The amino acids are joined by a peptide bond
  • Step 5: A chain of amino acids is formed until a stop codon is reached
  • Results: The amino acids become a protein when released from the ribosome. The chain twist up to make a protein

Complementary nature of DNA, mRNA and tRNA (to include codon, anticodon and amino acid (These can be used when you explain each step of the central dogma)

  • Central Dogma explains how humans take genetic information from their parents and how it is generated into a full human being.
  • Step 1: DNA
  • Step 2:Transcription (mRNA)
  • Step 3:Translation (tRNA)
  • Step 4: rRNA

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