Manifest Destiny pages 345 - 367

Rivalry in the Northwest

  1. In the early 1800s, four nations claimed Oregon Country.
  2. Oregon Country was a huge area located north of California, between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. Oregon Country included all of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, it also was parts of Montana and Wyoming.

Adams - Onis Treaty

  1. People wanted to control Oregon to gain access to the Pacific Ocean, and John Quincy Adams got Spain's approval to create the Adams-Onis Treaty.
  2. Dealing with Great Britain was harder than you would think. In 1818 Adams worked out an agreement with Great Britain to make a joint occupation- which was a situation in which people from two countries can occupy an area, in this case, America.

Mountain Men in Oregon

  1. Fur traders were the first to occupy the Oregon Country. They came to trap beaver, to get their skins, because they were in great demand in Europe.
  2. John Jacob Astor- a merchant of New York- created the American Fur Company in 1818. The American Fur Company and it traded on the East Coast, in the Pacific Northwest, and in China.
  3. After living in Oregon for quite awhile, people living there could no longer make a living off of trapping. Over-trapping limited the amount of pelts available. Also, changes in fashion reduced demand for pelts.
What did America gain from the Adams-Onis Treaty?
It gave America Oregon and gave them access to the Pacific Ocean.

Oregon and manifest destiny - Marcus and Narcissa Whitman

  1. In the 1830's, Americans began traveling to Oregon Country to settle. A reason why they came over to settle in Oregon Country was due to the economic troubles in the East, As well as reports of Oregon's fertile land.
  2. Among the first settlers to come to Oregon Country were Dr. Marcus Whitman and his wife, Narcissa Whitman. The two of them were missionaries who came to Oregon in 1836 and they built a mission among the Cayuse people near the present site of WALLA WALLA, WASHINGTON.
  3. Marcus and Marcissa Whitman came to Oregon Country because they wanted to provide medical care and convert the Cayuse to Christianity.

Along the Oregon Trail

This is the Oregon Trail, as indicated by the very thick red lines you can obviously see on this giant map.
  1. In 1843 about a thousand emigrants- people who leave their country- made the journey of following the Oregon Trail to the new land.
  2. The Oregon Trail was a very long trail. It was 2,000 miles (3,219 km) long. So people packed all of their belongings before heading towards towards Oregon Country.
  3. The emigrants' wagons were covered in canvas, and from a distance they looked like schooners, which were ships at sea. Since they looked like schooners, people called the wagons prairie schooners.

America Seeks its Manifest Destiny

This is what people believed was Manifest Destiny. I would make this picture larger but it looks too big if I make it full width so you'll have to deal with not seeing this angel thing's face. Or most of this picture.
  1. Since colonial times, many Americans had believed their nation's mission should be to serve as a model of freedom and democracy, though, in the 1800's that vision changed.
  2. Many people believed that the nation's mission was to spread freedom by colonizing the entire continent.
  3. In the 1840's John O'Sullivan, a New York newspaper editor, express the idea of a national mission. O'Sullivan believed in America's Manifest Destiny. Manifest Destiny was the belief that the United States was destined by God to extend it's boundaries to the Pacific Ocean.

"Fifty-Four Forty or fight"

  1. Many Americans wanted to take over all of Oregon.
  2. In the 1844 presidential election, James K. Polk, the Democratic nominee, supported the idea of taking over all of Oregon.
  3. Democrats used the slogan "Fifty-Four Forty or Fight", referring to the line of latitude they believed should be the nation's northern border in Oregon.
  4. Polk's Whig opponent, Henry Clay, did not take a strong position of the Oregon issue. Polk won the election because Clay didn't receive Whig support.
How did Polk’s views differ from Clay’s in the 1844 election?
Henry Clay didn't take a strong position on the Oregon dilemma while James K. Polk did. Their views differed in the way that one of them strongly believe in Manifest Destiny and the other didn't care for it.

Lesson 2: Statehood for Florida and Texas

This is a map of the United States as indicated by all the states you see and should recognize. Florida and Texas are there if you look at the bottom of the picture.
How did Florida become state?
Spain transferred Florida to the United States on July 17, 1821, so that's how Florida became a state. A united State.


Pretty palm treeeeeeeeees
  1. Tallahassee because Florida's territorial capital in 1824
  2. Planters from Virginia, Georgia, and the Carolina had worn out their soil over heavy use.
  3. The planters left their home states to travel to Florida. In Florida they made tobacco and cotton plantations, especially in the panhandle of Florida.

The territory Grows

More palm treeeeeeeeeees
  1. In 1837, the census- official population count- for the territory of Florida reported that 48,000 people lived there. Enslaved people made up half of that population.
  2. Florida's desire to enter the Union as a slave state caused problems. The United States had a balance between how many slave states they had and how many non-slave states they had.

Statehood for Florida

Even more palm treeeeeeeeeeeeees
  1. Florida became the twenty-seventh state of the United States on March 3, 1845.
What caused the population of Florida to grow?
Planters in Georgia, Virginia, and the Carolina's had worn out their soil with heavy use, they left their old plantations for new land in Florida where they established cotton and tobacco plantation.


Texan cows
  1. In 1821 Mexico won independence from Spain.
  2. Mexico controlled what is presently Texas.
  3. At first, Mexico encouraged Americans to settle in Texas. After a while, Americans greatly outnumbered Tejanos- Mexicans who claimed Texas as their home.

The Alamo

  1. The Texans had only around 180 soldiers to take on Santa Anna's army of several thousand.
  2. For 13 long days, through several attacks, the defenders of the Alamo kept Santa Anna's army at bay with their rifle fire.
  3. On March 6, 1836, Mexican cannon fire blasted through the Alamo's walls.

Texas Declares its Independence

  1. During the siege at the Alamo, Texan leaders met at the town of Washington-on-the-Brazos.
  2. On March 2, 1836- four days before the fall of the Alamo- they declared independence from Mexico.

The Lone Star Republic

  1. In September 1836, Sam Houston was elected as the president of Texas.
  2. Houston send a delegation to Washington D.C., to ask the United States to annex, or take control of, Texas.

Texas Becomes a State

  1. Many Texans wanted to be a part of the United States.
  2. The Southerners favored Texas's annexation, but Northerners didn't. They didn't want another slave state in the Union.
Why did it take a long time for the United States to annex Texas?
Because Northerners opposed Texas's annexation and Southerners favored it.

Lesson 3: War with Mexico

How did the Santa Fe Trail benefit the New Mexico Territory?
It was very convenient, the Santa Fe Trail was first walked by William Becknell and other Americans followed Becknell's trail.

The New Mexico Territory

  1. In the early 1800's, the land called New Mexico was a vast region between the Texas and California territories.
  2. New Mexico was included all of the land that is now the states of New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and Utah, plus parts of Colorado and Wyoming.
  3. William Becknell was the first American trader to reach Santa Fe.
How did William Becknell influence the American settlement of New Mexico?
By creating the Santa Fe trail, people followed in his footsteps.

California's Spanish Culture

This is the most beautiful flag ever.. The Bare Flag as I like to call it.
  1. Spanish explorers and missionaries from Mexico settled in California in the 1700's.
  2. Captain Gaspar de Portola and Father Junipero Serra began a chain of missions that extended from San Diego to Sonoma.

Conflict Begins

  1. James K. Polk- still president at the time- was determined to get California and New Mexico territories from Mexico.
  2. Mexico refused Polk's offer of the territories, so Polk planned to get them through war.
  3. Because Polk was a sneaky sneaky man, he wanted Mexico to strike first so he could have an explanation for the war, and he would tell whoever that Mexico started it.

A War Plan

As indicated by these poor Stormtroopers, war is never the answer.
  1. Polk had a plan to fight this war, he had three steps- First, the United States would drive Mexican forces out of Texas. Second, it would seize New Mexico and California. Third, American forces would advance into Mexico and capture the capital, Mexico City.
  2. By 1847, Zachary Taylor had completed the first goal.

California Uprising

  1. Even before the war officially began, American settlers in northern California started an uprising because of an American general named John C. Fremont.
  2. On June 14, 1846, the Americans declared independence on California.

Peace Terms

  1. Mexico's leaders- defeated on February 2, 1848- signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. It gave the States more than 500,000 square miles of territory.
  2. The question of whether the new lands should allow slavery, however, would lead to another bloody conflict.
What did America gain from the Mexican War?
Land that made California, Nevada, and Utah, plus parts of Colorado and Wyoming.

Lesson 4: California and Utah

How did the discovery of gold help California?
It made people come and settle at California to see if they could find gold there.

California Gold Rush

  1. Gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill in 1848 which attracted people from all over the world just to see if luck was on their side.
  2. Those who traveled in 1849 were called "forty-niners"

The Californios

  1. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the Mexican War and made Californios- Mexicans living in California- members of the United States.

The Life of a Forty-Niner

  1. Due to all the new arrivals daily, settlements and communities grew almost overnight.
  2. Cities flourished during the Gold Rush. Tiny villages turned into cities of 20,000 people- these cities were boomtowns.

Gold Rush Society

  1. The mining camps during the Gold Rush contained men of all backgrounds, but few women. Vigilantes formed communities and groups just to protect themselves, because men were drinking and fighting.

Economic and Political Progress

  1. In 1849, Californians applied for statehood and wrote a constitution. The constitution's ban on slavery caused a Congress crisis.
How did the California Gold Rush lead to the expansion of cities?
Cities became known as boomtowns, because their populations grew tremendously because of new people of all backgrounds every day.

A Religious Refuge in Utah

  1. While the Gold Rush was transforming California, Utah was changing too. Mormons were making their own community and fulfilling their vision at a godly life.

The Mormons Move On

  1. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was among a number of religious movements that sprang up during the religious awakenings in the 1830's and 1840's.
  2. Joseph Smith was the founder of the Mormon Church.
  3. Smith formed a community in New York, but neighbors disapproved of the Mormons' religion and forced them to leave.

A Haven in the Desert

  1. The Mormon migration began in 1846.
  2. About 12,000 Mormons made the trek in the largest single migration in American history.
  3. Life was difficult for the settlers in Deseret. But the Mormons made Deseret flourish through hard work and determination.
Why did the Mormons have to keep moving from one place to another?
They kept getting forced out of their new "homes."


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