For this Project, we have chosen a light frame construction project that is located on Route 9 in Hadley, Massachusetts. The Crocker Building Co. is constructing this project. There are two building that are on this plot. The completed project will be the new home of an Architectural building for commercial and retail use. Jones Group Relations will be the organization that will be using this building. Easthampton Savings Bank is funding the project.
Week Three Observation
October 30, 2016 - November 5, 2016
Here is the wall from the floor to ceiling. In this picture, you can the sill plate. And bottom or sole plate. The sill plate is installed on top of the foundation and the bottom or sole place it installed on top of the sill plate.
This is a close-up picture of the window framing. This is the Trimmer Stud or Jack stud and the header of the window cut out. Also you can see that the sheathing is installed before the windows are installed.
Here is the exterior of the building. Once the main framing is done a wall sheathing must be put up on the exterior of the walls. This sheathing is a water-resistant material that helps weatherize the building. This is the last step before the siding can be applied to the building.
In this Picture, you can see the king studs, cripple studs, rough sill, header, and regular studs. Each Building that had windows are required to follow this framing code.
Week Three Research
Walls come in many shapes and sizes and serve many purposes. It is important to make a wall big enough to house the utilities and the insulation. The most residential wall is a 2X6 exterior wall with studs 16 inches on center. The exterior walls are usually larger than the interior walls because exterior walls are holding the load of the roof and levels above. Interior walls can be load bearing depending on the span of the floor or roofing systems.
Before the walls can go up, they need to be secure the sill plate to the anchor bolts that a poured into the concrete foundations.
There are several components needed to form a wall. Starting from the foundation, there is a sill plate then the bottom plate of the wall. This plate is how the studs are connected to the structure. Studs must be constructed correctly and to code because they supporting the upper floor or the roof. The maximum space between studs is 24 inches on center. Construction is easier if the studs are 16 or 24 inches apart because all boards that will be nailed to the studs come in sheets with multiples of four. This reduces waste and makes the job easier because there is less cutting. On top of the studs, to hold the wall together is a top plate. At the bottom of the studs is a bottom plate. The roof or second-floor system attaches to the top plates.
Windows and doors get special framing to keep the integrity of the wall strong and to makes sure the window and doors work properly. Windows and doors require headers to meet code. The header is a thick stronger piece of lumber that spans the entire length of the opening and gets secured to the jack studs that framing the opening. The jack stud is attached to the king stud, which unlike the jack that only spans the height of the window, span from the top plate to the bottom plate. The jack stud and the header are both secured to the king stud. The rough open in the wall may or may not fall within the studs and therefore the studs that are missing or filled in under the opening and above the opening. These short studs holding up the window are called cripple studs. They are only long enough to reach the rough sill of the window from the bottom plate. The continue the spacing created by the studs through the walls, at 16 or 24 on center. Windows are traditionally located in exterior walls and they are the same thickness as the wall framing around them.
Insulation gets placed into the wall to maintain appropriate conditioned air within a space. In New England, there needs to be insulation to keep heat in throughout the winter, and keep air conditioning in throughout the summer. The type of insulation that gets picked is determined by the R-value of the insulating material. The R-value is determined by the building code but it is important to maintain the highest possible R-value to increase energy savings and reduce the amount of energy needed to condition a space.
It is very important to minimize air leakage around sill plates, bottom plates of the exterior walls and around the windows. When wires and pipes penetrate a wall, there must be special sealing to ensure a closed envelop. Utilities can only occupy a small percentage of the stud. Any type of holes within the exterior wall or in the roof will allow air to pass through to the outside. The insulation around the PVC pipe requires the insulation to be cut in two which weakens the R-value of the insulation and allows for an air gap.
There are different types of insulation including batts or rolls of fiberglass insulation, which is most traditional in residential construction. The insulation does not get added until the entire exterior is water tight but insulation with facing adds an interior layer of waterproofing with aluminum. Our job site had the walls put up before we could determine the type of insulation they determined as the best for this building.