Section One:Postwar Uncertainty
A New Revolution in Science: This was impacted majorly by Albert Einstein and Sigmund Freud. Especially in the 20th century
Einstein's Theory of Relativity: ALbert Einstein was a german born physicist. In 1905, he began to theorized that the speed of light is constant. Which led him to discover the theory of relativity.
Influence of Freudian Psychology: Sigmund Freud is just like Albert Einstein. What he did was treat people with psychological problems. Which led him to theorize about the human mind.
Literature in the 1920s: WW1 brutality led many philosophers to question acceptance of reason and progress.
Writers Reflect Society’s Concerns: The horror of war had deep impressions on many writers. Such as on the novels The Trial and The Castle.
Thinkers React to Uncertainties: In search of the uncertain world. SOme thinkers turned to existentialism. Most of them were influenced by Friedrich Nietzsche a german philosopher.
Revolution in the Arts: After the war the directions of art and music evolved into great things.
Artists Rebel Against Tradition: The artists wanted to rebel the traditional paintings. They wanted to depict the world of inner emotion and imagination. Through the ideas of Freud it started the movement of Surrealism. The art that linked the world of dreams with life.
Composers Try New Styles: In both classical and popular music the composers moved away from. During this time the musical style of jazz emerged in the U.S. Which it all started in New Orleans.
Society Challenges Convention: WW1 disrupted many of the traditional social patterns. Which led to new kinds of freedom in the 1920's.
Women’s Roles Change: This independent spirit showed clearly in the changes of women's roles in life This only started thanks to the war. And it let them show their uniqueness. By abandoning the restrictions on their lives. Such as wearing loose clothing and short hair.
Technological Advances Improve Life: During WW1 it helped develop new things for everyone. Such as drugs medical treatments.
The Automobile Alters Society: It all started in britain. In 1913 Britain 34,000 automobiles was made. And by 1947 British produced about 511,000.
Airplanes Transform Travel: After the war air travel was the objective. BY 1919 two british pilots made the first successful flight across the atlantic.
Radio and Movies Dominate Popular Entertainment: In 1895 Guglielmo Marconi had the first successful radio. Which was very useful in WW1. The first radio cast was held in Pittsburg, Pennsylvannia.
Section 2:A Worldwide Depression
Postwar Europe: WW1 left both human and economic terms in immense.
Unstable New Democracies: At wars end had the sudden rise of new democracies. The first one was russia in 1917. It had a Coalition Government.
The Weimar Republic: This as the germans new democratic government. THis had a serious weakness from the start. It lacked democratic tradition.
Inflation Causes Crisis in Germany: Germany enormous economic problems. After the defeat its paper money lost all its value.
Attempts at Economic Stability: Germany recovered from 1923 inflation. By 1924 the Dawes Plan help slow the inflation.
Efforts at a Lasting Peace: When prosperity returned Germany tried to improve the relationship between them and France. By not joining in the League. The US had weaken the chance on how to create peace.
Financial Collapse: In the 1920's The US economy sustained the world. If it weaken them the worlds would and maybe collaspe. An in 1929 it did.
A Flawed U.S. Economy: Besides the prosperity. There were many flaws in the US economy. The US might be producing the most of the worlds industrial goods.
The Stock Market Crashes: New York City Wall Street was the financial capital of the world.Thursday, October 24 the stock market finally fell.
The Great Depression: After the stock market fell. The US fell into what is now called the Great Depression.
A Global Depression: When the US economy collapse. It sent the world into the Great Depression. Everyone started to withdraw their investment around the world.
Effects Throughout the World: Because of everything after the war. Such as debts and dependence. Germany and Austria
The World Confronts the Crisis:With the depression, it confronted the democracies to challenge their economies and political systems.
Britain Takes Steps to Improve Its Economy: The depression hit Britain badly. By 1937 the unemployment rate had been cut in half. The production risen above 1929 levels.
France Responds to Economic Crisis: Unlike Britain, France had a self-sufficient economy. But by 1935, one million of the french people were unemployed. So by 1936, they formed a coalition.
Socialist Governments Find Solutions: The socialists governments also met the challenge of the economic crisis. They soon built their recovery programs. Based on the existing traditions of the cooperative community.
Recovery in the United States: In 1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first president elected in the Great Depression. On March 4, 1933 he sought to restore the faith of the american people of their country. Which started with his new program called The New Deal.
Section 3:Fascism Rises in Europe
Fascism’s Rise in Italy: Fascism is where they emphasized loyalty to the obedience to its leader. Fascists mainly preached for an extreme nationalism.
Mussolini Takes Control: Fascims rise in Italy. Only fueled bitter disappointment over the large failure to win territorial gains. In the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Benito Mussolini promised to rescued Italy from reviving their economy and army.
Il Duce’s Leadership: By now Mussolini was Il Duce. He abolished democracy and outlawed any political parties. Except the Fascists. And had secret police to jail his opponents.
Hitler Rises to Power in Germany: When Mussolini was dictator of Italy in the mid-1920's. Hitler was a little but know politician. Whose life had been riddled with disappointments. But with WW1 he found a new beginning in Germany's army.
The Rise of the Nazis: In the end Hitler settled in Munich. He soon joined a new political group. That all agreed Germany had the bad part of the Treaty of Versailles. In 1923 the Nazis planned to take over Munich. After this he was arrested and sent to prison. Where he wrote Mein Kampf. After he was let out. He revived the Nazis party.
Hitler Becomes Chancellor: By 1932 Nazis were the largest political party in Germany. Once he was elected and put in office. He called for new elections in hopes for parliament will have a majority.
The Führer Is Supreme: But Hitler was wanting more power in the political system. In order for him to do so. He went to the press, radio, literature, painting, and film.
Hitler Makes War on the Jews: The hatred for Jews was the main thing of Nazi ideology. By 1933 Nazis finally passed laws against jewish rights.
Other Countries Fall to Dictators: The Fascists were finally expanding over Europe. Which only started when Italy and Germany fell under dictatorship. By the 1930's the most powerful nations turned against each other. Into two parties. One side of democratic, the other under totalitarian.
Section 4: Aggressors Invade Nations
Japan Seeks an Empire: In the 1920's the Japanese government went more democratic.
Militarists Take Control of Japan: As long as they remained prosperous Japans civilian governments kept their power. But when the Great depression hit. The people blamed the government. So to militarists saw this as a prefect chance to take try and take over Japan.
Japan Invades Manchuria: All of Japanese businesses invested a lot of money in China's northern province Manchuria. They sent armies and seized Manchuria. When they did this. It was the first direct challenge to the League of Nations.
Japan Invades China: After four years the border incident a war broke out. The japanese swept over northern china. Despite china's enormous army. They were no match to the japanese.
European Aggressors on the March: The failure of the Leagues to stop Japan. The Fascists planned a aggression of their own.
Mussolini Attacks Ethiopia: Ethiopia was one of the three independent nations in Africa. Mussolini order an massive invasion. When they sought help through the league. It did nothing.
Hitler Defies Versailles Treaty: Before he started, he pledged to undo the treaty. The only way for him not to undo the treaty. Was for Britain to challenge him.
Civil War Erupts in Spain: