The Three Types of Down Syndrome
The three types of DS, or Down Syndrome, are Trisomy 21 which accounts for 95% of all DS. Mosaicism which accounts for 1% of all cases, and Translocation which accounts for 4% of all cases of DS.
Trisomy 21 is where the individual that has DS has one chromosome more than the normal person. These individuals have 47 chromosomes in each of there cells instead of 46 like most people. Trisomy 21 is called this because the extra chromosome is and copy of chromosome 21.
Mosaicism is where the individual that has DS has a mixture the amount of chromosomes in each of their cells. Some with 46 chromosomes and some with 47 chromosomes.
Translocation is where the person with it still has 46 chromosomes in each cell, but in each cell they will have a partial to full copy chromosome 21. The reason they still have 46 chromosomes is because the copy will attach itself to another chromosome, usually chromosome 14.
The Chance of having a child with down syndrome
At the age of 35 a women will have a 1 in 350 chance of giving birth to a child with Down Syndrome.
These chances increase to 1 in 100 by the age of forty, and approximately 1 in 30 by age 45.
In 95% of all cases Down syndrome has been traced back to the mother. This means 5% of all cases have been tracked to the father. Down Syndrome is not inheirited.
The effects of down syndrome and tools that help
Down Syndrome is a disability that cause development delays and cause learning disabilities. It also causes speech delays.
A person with DS tend to have shorter, stubbier fingers, and they also will have lower thumbs. They will also have a lack of mobility in their wrist.
A person with DS will have upward slanted eyes, low muscle tone, and will have a deep crease on their palms.
A person with Down Syndrome will have an increased chance at having respitory and hearing problems, Alzheimer's disease, thyroid conditions, congenital heart defects, and childhood leukemia. Many of these are treatable now so most people with Down Syndrome lead healthy lives.
Tools that help kids with Down Syndrome include s triangular pencil, a slanted desk, an a three ringed binder tilted sideways. All of these help with the lack of mobility in a child with Down Syndrome has in their wrist.
how down syndrome effects the child's schooling
A child with Down Syndrome will have speech delays meaning they may speak their first intelligible words between ages 1 and 4. They may have spoken their first phrase between the ages of 2 and 7 1/2.
A child with DS will also have learning disabilities. This will mean that they learn at a slower pace and will need a little bit of help on some things.
A child with Down Syndrome may also have a messed up digestive system which causes them to eat on a lifelong diet.