Canada's Animal Agriculture Sustainability by 2041 "How can we make canada more sustainable by the year 2041?"


Hatching Egg Production: Represents 230 farmers from British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec. There are two different type of eggs, the white or brown egg and the broiler hatching egg. The differences between the type of eggs are the white or brown egg is produced for especially human consumption and purchased first in grocery stores, while the broiler hatching egg is a fertilized egg that is shipped to hatcheries where they are placed into specialized incubators and hatch 21 days later into broiler chicks. These broiler chicks are then sold to chicken farmers who raise them into chickens. The cycle of turning a broiler hatching egg into a fully grown chicken takes about nine weeks.

Sustainable Solution

Split feeding system: This feeding programme results in a more profitable egg production through reduced cost of production, improved eggshell quality, increased number of marketable eggs and improved performance under sustainability criteria.

Split feeding system improves eggshell quality: The effect of a change in feeding system was tested in an old flock (from 91 to 98 weeks of age). The first four weeks (weeks 91 to 94), a single feed was used and the next four weeks (weeks 95 to 98), laying hens were fed with an equivalent Split Feeding programme. The Split Feeding system significantly reduced the percentage of broken and shell-less eggs compared to the values obtained during the preceding period, when using a single feed system, and significantly increased the number of sellable eggs.

Split feeding consistently reduces the amount of nutrient loss in excreta: In the three experiments in which the effects of Split Feeding on nutrient excretion were studied, the results proved Split Feeding is a more sustainable feeding programme because of the reduced levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium in the excreta. A lower daily nutrient intake and better use of those nutrients were achieved with the Split Feeding system as nutrients are provided when the laying hens require them.

In the three experiments in which the effects of Split Feeding on nutrient excretion were studied, the results proved Split Feeding is a more sustainable feeding programme because of the reduced levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium in the excreta. A lower daily nutrient intake and better use of those nutrients were achieved with the Split Feeding system as nutrients are provided when the laying hens require them. For that purpose two different diets are provided:

  • The morning diet is designed to fit requirements during the morning when the albumen is being formed, and ovulation and oviposition occur.
  • This adaptation to the physiological requirements of the laying hen during the day allows the Split Feeding system to be a more efficient feeding programme
  • Split Feeding brings the optimal supply of nutrients in order to meet the needs of hens in the egg formation process and more profitable and sustainable egg production, with a lower production cost.
  • Split Feeding offers the following benefits:
  • More profitable egg production by reduction of production cost.
  • Improved eggshell quality and increased number of marketed eggs.
  • Improved nutrient efficiency and sustainability.


Pig Production: With revenues amounting to over three billion Canadian dollars, the pork sector accounts for 30% of total livestock shipments and for 10% of all farm cash receipts. Hog production is a important part of Canada's agricultural economy. Each province shares in this production in quality and in volume. All hog production in Canada takes place in a controlled environment which suggest the truth that, at all times of the year, animals are kept in buildings specialized to giving birth to piglets growing and finishing areas of raising market hogs. The most common hog production today is a specialized give birth to piglets to finish operation of 200 to 250 plants, which can be managed efficiently by a single family. Healthy quality breeding stock is the cornerstone of our hog industry. A strong infrastructure is in place and working in Canada to organize the progressing program of swine improvement. In 1984, Canada introduced a sow productivity and management system and for the last three years, our sow productivity improved 11 % while looking to other leading hog producing countries recording increases of 1% to 2%

Sustainable Solution

Conserving Energy: We can seek to be responsible consumers of energy resources. As businesspeople, we want to minimize energy costs we should have built-in incentives to transport pigs, feed and other supplies as efficiently as possible. We can conserve energy usage on our farms by using natural sunlight where and when possible, using energy efficient artificial light, and properly insulating our pig barns. Using the pig manure as fertilizer for crops can also save energy by replacing the use of man-made fertilizers that are made from natural gas and petroleum products.

Canadian Population Impact On Animal Agriculture

Canadians represent about 0.5% of the global population, produce about 1.5% of the food in the world, and consume about 0.6% of world food production. In 2004, Canada ranked 8th in the world for production of cereals, including wheat, barley and oats 10th in meat production; and 19th in fisheries and aquaculture production . As the global population increases, the interdependency of food, energy, water, land and biological resources becomes more apparent.

Farm and non-farm Population in Canada 1931 to 2006:

In 1921, Canada was largely a rural country, with half of Canadians living in rural areas, compared to less than a fifth of the population in 2006. The number of people living on the farm has also declined since the early 20th century. Almost a third of Canadians lived on farms in 1931, compared to 2% in 2006.

In 1921, agriculture was the single most common occupation, employing 1,041,618 Canadians and accounting for 33% of all jobs, followed by manufacturing (17%), trade (10%) and transportation (8%). In comparison, 346,400 Canadians were primarily employed in agriculture in 2006, accounting for 2% of total employment.

Transportation Emissions

The industrial transformation of agriculture is related to the increasing distance and durability of food and centralized production and processing systems. Food has to travel further, a fact popularly referred to as ‘food miles’. Much of the growing popular awareness about food miles has focused on the resulting carbon emissions , which has made this concept a very visible marker for how the food system is linked to climate change. Canada is a major exporter of both feed crops and industrially produced meat, adding to emissions. It should also be noted that Canada’s larger geographic footprint increases transportation emissions, as compared to other industrialized regions, such as the EU or Japan.

While total emissions from transportation contribute to 13.1 percent of the global warming effect, this includes emissions from toting around all kinds of things, from people to pork chops. Transport emissions specifically from food are just a splinter of these emissions.

Nonetheless, reducing food miles can still make a meaningful dent in our foods emissions toll. Consider the fossil fuels wasted carting fresh tomatoes to New Jersey, a state with ample farmland that exports tons of tomatoes every year. Researchers at Rutgers University estimated that meeting the New Jersey demand for just one year’s supply of out-of-state tomatoes used up enough fossil fuel to drive an 18-wheeler around the world 249 times. Food miles matter because so much of our food transport is unnecessary.

Sustainable Solution

Local food is a better choice because it is fresher and therefore healthier for us. Buying local also supports our local economies. Purchasing local foods means supporting small-scale businesses and protecting green space in our communities.

Farms Around Urban Areas Are More Effective

Does proximity to urban areas favour certain farm types? It comes as no surprise that operations that often sell directly to consumers nurseries and U-pick fruit farms for example are close to population centres. Likewise, farms that require a lot of labour might tend to locate around urban areas where they can source the needed hands more readily. Farms that produce perishable products, such as fresh vegetable operations, might also want to be next to their client base, the better to speed food at its freshest to restaurants and markets. Conversely, crop farmers might find it frustrating to farm smaller parcels and navigate farm equipment on busy roads. Large operations with animals might want to locate farther outside the city and forgo neighbours complaints about the smell.

  • Canada
  • Total number of farms: 2001: 246,923
  • Total number of farms: 2006: 229,373
  • Total farm population: 2001: 729,405
  • Total farm population: 2006: 684,260
  • Rural farm population: 2001: 697,960
  • Rural farm population: 2006: 642,715
  • Urban farm population: 2001: 31,445
  • Urban farm population: 2006: 41,540
  • Total population: 2001: 29,914,315
  • Total population: 2006: 31,511,587
  • Rural population: 2001: 6,053,467
  • Rural population: 2006: 6,216,135
  • Urban population: 2001: 23,860,848
  • Urban population: 2006: 23,860,848

Our total number of farms are decreasing as the years go by and majority of farms are in rural areas which needs to shift around the urban areas.

Animal Agriculture Waste Management

The first goal of any waste management system is to maximize the economic benefit from the waste resource and maintain acceptable environmental standards. To be practical, the system must also be affordable and suitable to the operation. If wastes are not properly handled they can pollute surface and groundwater and contribute to air pollution. Most people think of manure first when they think of farm waste. While manure is an important component, farm waste in a livestock operation can also include waste forage, dead stock, silage effluent and milk house waste. In horticultural operations, culls, diseased product, wash line sediment and processing plant wastes are common by-products.

Sustainable Solutions

  • Reduce the amount of waste product generated
  • Reuse the waste product on the farm or provide it for others to use
  • After reducing and reusing as much of the waste product as possible, recycle the product either on-farm, such as with land application of manure, or off-farm, such as with plastic recycling programs.
  • Recover methane gas from manure waste.


These are the impacts of Animal Agriculture on the population, physical environment and livable communities. I have listed sustainable solutions to issues pertaining to Animal Agriculture which by 2041 will make Canada a more sustainable country. This is only possible if you Prime Minister Justin Trudeau accept this proposal for our beautiful country's sustainability.

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