Shang Dynasty - 1700 B.C. - 1100 B.C. King Tang was the founder of the Shang. The yellow loess (a fine dust-like material blown in from the Gobi) made farming very untroublesome. They used oracle bones which happened to be the earliest Chinese writings to date. They also did human and animal sacrifices to the Gods. The Shang Dynasty made silk and pottery and also used bronze for ceremonies and decoration. For example, they decorated cups and made pots and weapons.
The Shang lived in Eastern China next to the Yellow Sea. The Shang started in the Huang Ha river valley, they thrived there for 600 years.
Zhou Dynasty- 1046-256 B.C. King Wu was the founder of the Zhou dynasty. They declared they had the MOH (Mandate of Heaven) which was the right to rule. If you had victory, normally in the warring states period, it was proof that heaven supported you on the condition that you had to act virtuously towards your citizens. They survived a first attempt to be overthrown. The Zhou controlled their states by putting trusted members in charge of individual regions. The Zhou did many things the same way as the Shang, but they didn't believe in human or animal sacrifice.
The Zhou lived in the same area as the Shang, but they expanded south of the Chang Jiang.
Qin dynasty- 221 B.C. - 207 B.C. Shi Huangdi was the tyrannical ruler of the Qin dynasty. Shi Huangdi was a firm believer in legalism. Legalism is a very cruel way of thinking, the thinking is that everybody is born bad and only a strong leader and harsh punishments force people to be good. During the Qin dynasty, many public works projects were completed. Some of the projects included the Great Wall of China, the Grand Canal, and Shi Huangdi's tomb and Terra-cotta army. Shi Huandi also ordered people who disagreed with him to be killed. Another horrifying act Shi Huangdi did was burn every single book except books on agriculture, prophecy, and medicine.
Their territory spread from the Yellow Sea all the way down to the South China Sea and goes to the Plateau of Tibet.
Han dynasty - 206 B.C. - 220 A.D. The Han dynasty was founded by the rebel general Liu Bang, he eradicated the tyranny of Shi Huangdi. The Han kept standardization, but they were not cruel. Wudi, the 5th emperor of the Han, avoided uprisings by creating a strong central government, and leaving local nobles too weak to challenge him. Officials under the Han lived lives of luxury, influence, and comfort, with special clothes, high social rank and salary. Officials were not allowed to serve in home districts. The Han created the silk road which spread goods and ideas. The Han sent an envoy led by Zhang Qian, who claimed he saw horses that sweat blood, and men who rode elephants! The Chinese exported silk, porcelain, jade, and gems.
- They imported grapes, sesame seeds, onions, and exotic animals. Buddhism also came through the silk road from the Indian Peninsula. The Han expanded much farther North, South, and West of the Qin dynasty. Part of their territory was in the Gobi and Taklamakan desert.
The 3 main philosophies of ancient are Confucianism, Daoism, & Buddhism. There was also a belief called ancestor worship, this is the belief that the dead should be worshiped and honored through setting out food, burning fake "spirit" money, and by inscribing their names on tablets. Confucianism is based off of the ideas of a man named Confucius and it focused on the virtues of kindness, family, following by example, and that a good and honorable government is the key to happiness. Daoism is based off of the ideas of Loazi. Daoists believed that the way of nature, not government is the key to happiness. Buddhism was based on the beliefs of Siddhartha Gautama who believed that all unhappiness is from desire.
Calligraphy - The art of producing decorative handwriting or lettering with a pen or brush. Lacquer - The sap of the lacquer tree used to varnish wood or other materials. Acupuncture - Pricking the skin or tissue with a needle to alleviate pain or other symptoms. Originated in China. Seismometer - An instrument that measures the motion of the ground INVENTIONS: Paper, Compass, gunpowder, noodles, cast iron plow, mold board, porcelain, kung-fu, silk, & FIREWORKS. SOCIAL HIERARCHY: Emperors, Scholars & Officials, Farmers & Artisans, Merchants, slaves.
Thanks for watching, from J.W. Turrentine & "Benji" Delzer