HISTORY OF PRINTING By Seth Rawls

- THE START OF IT ALL -

3100 BCE

  • - Cuneiform, one of the earliest known writing systems is developed in Sumner (modern day Israel)
Early Cuneiform

3000 BCE

  • - Papyrus plant, a paper like material used as a writing surface in Egypt
Papyrus Paper

500 BCE

  • - Other resources are used as writing surfaces such as parchment and amate

100 BCE

  • - Paper is invented in China by monks
Early Chinese Paper

200 - 500 CE

  • Woodblock printing in China and paper making in Samarkand form

711 CE

  • Moors invade Spain, introducing papermaking techniques from the east

794

  • Paper mill established in Baghdad, Abbasid dynasty ( present day Iraq)

932

  • Chinese printers adapt Wood-block printing to mass produce classical books
  • (The earliest woodblock printed fragments to survive are from China and are of silk, printed with flowers in three colours from the Han Dynasty)
Example of woodblock printing

1041

  • Movable type is also invented in China
  • (Bi Sheng (毕昇/畢昇) (990–1051) developed the first known movable-type system for printing in China around 1040 AD during the Northern Song dynasty, using ceramic materials.)

1151

  • First papermill in Europe at Xàtiva (Spain)

1298

  • Marco Polo reported seeing the printing of paper money in China
Example of Chinese Paper Money

- JOHANNES GUTENBURG -

Johannes Gutenburg, the inventor of the printing press.

- THE PRINTING PRESS -

1440

  • - Printing press is invented in the Holy Roman Empire by the German Johannes Gutenberg, based off of existing screw presses.
First Printing Press

1450

  • - The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible, the Mazarin Bible or the B42) was the first major book printed using mass-produced movable metal type in Europe. Produced in modern day Germany by Johannes Gutenberg.
Gutenberg Bible

- HOW WERE BOOKS MADE BEFORE PRINTING PRESS? -

Books were produced by hand. They were written on surfaces of clay, papyrus, wax, and parchment.

- HOW DID THE PRINTING PRESS CHANGE THE WORLD? -

The printing press made printing faster and more efficient. It normally took a month to two months to produce a single copy of a book while Gutenberg’s press made 500 copies a week. This mass production led to an increase of education in Europe, the scientific revolution, and the spread of the Protestant Reformation. It has also continued the spread of communication, technology, learning, and entertainment in today’s society worldwide.

- PRINTING EXPANDS IN EUROPE -

1478

  • - Printing begins at Oxford University
Oxford University

1495

  • - Paper mill established in England

1563

  • - Printing in France forbidden without royal permission under penalty of death

1584

  • - University press at Cambridge University begins operation and has done so to this day
Cambridge University Press

1611

  • - Publication of the first edition of the King James Bible
King James Bible

1655

  • - The London Gazette is the first regularly published English newspaper.
The London Gazette

- PRINTING IN THE AMERICAN COLONIES -

1690

  • - Paper making starts in America (Philadelphia)
  • Public Occurences Both Foreign and Domestic is the first newspaper published in America
Publick Occurrences Both Forreign and Domestick

1698

  • - Public library opens in Charleston, South Carolina

1775

  • - Common Sense by Thomas Paine is published
  • - Kibyoshi, Japanese picture books, spark the birth of the graphic novel
Common Sense by Thomas Paine

1776

  • - Declaration of Independence printed July 4 by John Dunlap
Declaration of Independence

- HOW WAS PRINTING USED IN COLONIAL AMERICA AND DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION? -

Printing was really used to spread ideas throughout the colonies. Thomas Paine’s Common Sense was one of them that made people really think about a revolution. It gave ordinary citizens a chance to think about what was really happening and what they were going to do about it. Throughout the war, printing brought encouragement to the country and brought information to families who needed it. Printing during this time was very important for American success.

- PRINTING EVOLVES -

1796

  • - Lithography is invented by Alois Senefelder

- LITHOGRAPHY -

Lithography is a method of printing originally based on the immiscibility of oil and water. The printing is done from a stone (lithographic limestone) or a metal plate with a smooth surface. Lithography works because of the mutual repulsion of oil and water. It was invented in 1796 by German author and actor Alois Senefelder as a cheap method of publishing theatrical works. Lithography can be used to print text or artwork onto paper or other suitable material.

Example of Lithography

1813

  • - George Clymer develops Columbian Printing Press, a cast-iron hand press featuring a lever, which replaced the simple screw mechanism for lowering the platen. It is distinguished by its bald eagle counterweight at top
Signature bald eagle on Columbian Printing Press

1827

  • - Means for mass-producing wood type invented by Darius Wells in New York City., Mass-produced newspaper, The New York Sun, "the penny press"
The Penny Press

1875

- Rotary offset lithographic printing press developed

1892

- Four-color rotary press developed

Rotary Offset Printing Press

- OFFSET PRINTING -

Offset printing is a commonly used printing technique in which the inked image is transferred (or "offset") from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface. When used in combination with the lithographic process, which is based on the repulsion of oil and water, the offset technique employs a flat image carrier on which the image to be printed obtains ink from ink rollers, while the non-printing area attracts a water-based film, keeping the non-printing areas ink-free.

Development of the offset press came in two versions: in 1875 by Robert Barclay of England for printing on tin, and in 1904 by Ira Washington Rubel of the United States for printing on paper.

- PRINTING GOES MAIN STREAM -

1949

  • - Phototype setting developed by René Higonnet and Louis Moyroud
Example of photo-type setting

1951

  • - Inkjet printing, which is a type of computer printing that recreates a digital image by propelling droplets of ink onto paper, plastic, or other substrates is developed by Epson, Hewlett-Packard (HP), and Canon
HP Inkjet printer

1963

  • - Pantone Matching System introduced

- PANTONE MATCHING SYSTEM -

The Pantone Color Matching System is largely a standardized color reproduction system. A majority of the world's printed material is produced using the CMYK process, and there is a special subset of Pantone colors that can be reproduced using CMYK. Those that are possible to simulate through the CMYK process are labeled as such within the company's guides. While most of the Pantone system colors are beyond the printed CMYK gamut, it was only in 2001 that Pantone began providing translations of their existing system with screen-based colors. Screen-based colors use the RGB color model-red, green, blue-system to create various colors.

Pantone Matching System

1969

  • - Laser printer which is a popular type of personal computer printer that uses a non-impact (keys don't strike the paper), photocopier technology. When a document is sent to the printer, a laser beam "draws" the document on a selenium-coated drum using electrical charges which was invented at Xerox by Gary Starkweather
Xerox laser printer

1970

  • - Water based ink which is a special type of decorative ink that literally soaks into the fabric instead of sitting on top of it, is introduced

1972

  • - Thermal printing developed
Example of thermal printer

1981

  • - The internet is developed
  • - Microsoft disk operating system introduced
Early Example of the Internet

1982

  • - Adobe Systems Inc. founded
Adobe Systems Offices

1983

  • - Desktop publishing appears

- COMPUTERS INTRODUCE A NEW GENERATION -

1984

  • - Apple Macintosh personal computer introduced
  • - 3D printing developed
Early Apple Macintosh
Inventor of 3D Printer, Chuck Hull

1985

  • - Microsoft Windows introduced
First Microsoft Windows

1991

  • - World Wide Web launched
The World Wide Web Connected People Together

- HOW DID THE COMPUTER IMPACT THE PRINTING INDUSTRY -

Technology today more than ever has a disruptive impact on publishing. The Internet, printing-on-demand and the e-book are the main drivers of change, impacting all aspects of the publishing value chain—from the way books are published (authors can go direct to the reader), distributed (electronic marketplaces), sold (e-tailers) and read (electronic books). Computers and technology have changed how the world functions and they have changed how books and text are handled and read.

1993

  • - Indigo digital color printer which was invented by Benny Landa but was bought by Hewlett and Packard is introduced
HP Indigo Color Printer

2003

  • - Hewlett Packard wi-fi laser printer introduced
HP Wi-Fi Laser Printer

2007

  • - Kindle e-reader developed by Amazon.com
Amazon Kindle

2009

  • - Nook e-reader developed by Barnes & Noble
Barnes & Noble Nook

2010

  • - Apple iPad tablet introduced
Apple iPad

- DIGITAL PRINTING -

Digital printing refers to methods of printing from a digital-based image directly to a variety of media. It usually refers to professional printing where small-run jobs from desktop publishing and other digital sources are printed using large-format and/or high-volume laser or inkjet printers. Digital printing has a higher cost per page than more traditional offset printing methods, but this price is usually offset by avoiding the cost of all the technical steps required to make printing plates. It also allows for on-demand printing, short turnaround time, and even a modification of the image (variable data) used for each impression. The savings in labor and the ever-increasing capability of digital presses means that digital printing is reaching the point where it can match or supersede offset printing technology's ability to produce larger print runs of several thousand sheets at a low price.

- PEOPLE AND COMPANIES RESPONSIBLE FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF PRINTING -

Many companies helped printing go “mainstream”. Printer companies such as Hewlett and Packard, Konica Minolta, Epson, and Canon have all helped the printing industry in one way or another. Printers are at the touch of a fingertip in many households and are mass producing products in the industrial world.

Hewlett and Packard
Konica Minolta
Epson
Canon

To be continued...

MADE BY SETH RAWLS

Created By
Seth Rawls
Appreciate

Credits:

Created with images by KJGarbutt - "42/52 - Identity" • Moyan_Brenn - "Old books" • Scott A. Wright - "Washington Crossing the Delaware" • meedanphotos - "ipad" • tookapic - "printer ink toner"

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