Animation of global sea surface temperature over from September 1981 to July 2019. Warmer ocean temperatures are shown as red and orange. Blues indicate colder waters, generally near the poles. Data are from the Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) global sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on a 0.25 degree grid at the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information.
This video provides a global tour of sea surface salinity using measurements taken by NASA's Aquarius instrument aboard the Aquarius/SAC-D spacecraft, from December 2011 through December 2012. Red represents areas of high salinity, while blue represents areas of low salinity. Aquarius was NASA's first effort to measure sea surface salinity from space, providing the global view of salinity variability needed for climate studies.
Another data source for ECCO are long-term averaged fields of ocean temperature and salinity, known as "climatology" data. These data grids are provided by the NOAA World Ocean Atlas at 1-degree spatial resolution. The fields are three-dimensional: interpolated onto vertical intervals from the surface (0 m) down to great depth (5500 m or 16,400 ft). Averaged fields are produced for annual, seasonal and monthly time-scales.
Ocean Bottom Pressure
Ocean bottom pressure is the sum of the mass of the atmosphere and ocean in a "cylinder" above the seafloor. This visualization shows monthly changes in ocean bottom pressure data obtained by the twin Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites from November 2002 to January 2012. Purple and blue shades indicate regions with relatively low ocean bottom pressure, while red and white shades indicate regions with relatively high ocean bottom pressure. Scientists use these data to observe and monitor changes in deep ocean currents, which transport water and energy around the globe.