The ancient Egyptians thought of Egypt as being divided into two types of land, the 'black land' and the 'red land'. The 'black land' was the fertile land on the banks of the Nile. The ancient Egyptians used this land for growing their crops. This was the only land in ancient Egypt that could be farmed because a layer of rich, black silt was deposited there every year after the Nile flooded. The 'red land' was the barren desert that protected Egypt on two sides. These deserts separated ancient Egypt from neighboring countries and invading armies. They also provided the ancient Egyptians with a source for precious metals and semi-precious stones.
The pharaoh was the head of state and the divine representative of the gods on earth.
In the social pyramid of ancient Egypt the pharaoh and those associated with divinity were at the top, and servants and slaves made up the bottom.
Ancient Egyptian laws were written by the Pharaoh and enforced by him (her) and the officials. Breaking these laws almost never ended well for the criminal, because of the harsh punishments. The decisions to administer these punishments were in the hands of a vizier or an oracle, but the biggest cases were referred to the Pharaoh.
Before using coinage they used non- coin forms such at Silver and Gold. Ex: Silver rings, and Gold pieces shaped as sheep.
Ancient Egypt was also one of the first groups to develop medicine.
Ancient Egypt was one of the first groups of people to write and keep records of events that had happened.