Loading

中共国激进的潜艇建设 【中英对照翻译】

新闻来源:《The Washington Times》;作者:Bill Gertz;发布时间:September 2, 2020

翻译/简评:势不可挡;校对:1818;审核:海阔天空 ;Page:刀削面面

简评:

战略核潜艇旨在确保国家遭到核攻击时能进行核反击,并从根本上确保完全摧毁核攻击者。这些“水下幽灵”通常在未公开的海域和极深的海下秘密巡逻。在过去四十年中,中共国一直在进行核和常规军事力量的全面建设,潜艇现代化仍然是重中之重。五角大楼称,预计到2030年,中共国海军将拥有多达8艘战略导弹核潜艇。而当前美国海军拥有14艘“俄亥俄”级战略核潜艇,到那时,中共国战略核潜艇规模将达到美军的一半。而中共国激进的核潜艇建设战略正在对美国及全球范围构成越来越大的威胁,全球各热点地区都可寻觅到中共国战略核潜艇的踪迹。

但相比美国战略核潜艇的规模,中共国水下核力量仍有巨大差距。据报道,美国商用卫星最近都拍到中共国最新晋级核潜艇,更别提军用卫星了!其次,中共国核导弹潜艇是否配备核弹头进行巡逻仍是疑问,没有核弹头的核潜艇巡逻将不会真正起到威慑作用,只是‘纸老虎’。国防部报告称,美国正计划建造12艘全新的“哥伦比亚”级战略核潜艇,它们可能是史上最安静的潜艇,中共国将望尘莫及。

该报道还提到中共国人民解放军的“非战争”行动,尤其是解放军使用的非武装冲突的强制性威胁和/或暴力手段。这些非战争活动被用作解放军的战略工具,旨在为中共国利益家族服务,并成为北京当局扩大全球利益的手段。最后,该报道指出,司法部透露朝鲜政府黑客在中共国洗钱者的帮助下对虚拟货币交易所进行了金融网络攻击,这也证明了中共国暗中支持朝鲜的犯罪活动。

原文翻译:

China's Aggressive Submarine Buildup

中共国激进的潜艇建设

Photo by: Mark Schiefelbein Submarine modernization remains a high priority within the overall nuclear and conventional forces build-up that has been under way in China for the past four decades. (Associated Press) | 图片提供者:Mark Schiefelbein 过去四十年,中共国一直在进行核和常规军事力量的全面建设,潜艇现代化仍然是重中之重。(美联社)

The People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) is continuing an aggressive build-up of its nuclear submarine forces, according to the Pentagon’s latest annual report on Chinese military power.

根据五角大楼关于中共国军事力量的最新年度报告,中国人民解放军海军(PLAN)正在持续激进地建设其核潜艇部队。

According to the report, made public Tuesday, submarine modernization remains a high priority within the overall nuclear and conventional forces build-up that has been underway for the past four decades.

根据周二公开的报告,在过去的四十年中,中共国一直在进行核和常规军事力量的全面建设,潜艇现代化仍然是其中的高度优先事项。

Beijing is adding two more ballistic missile submarines to its current force of four Jin-class “boomers,” as missile submarines are called. Six nuclear-powered attack submarines have also been built to complement 50 diesel power attack submarines.

北京当局正在向其现有的四艘被称为导弹潜艇的晋级(Jin-class)“潜艇”增加两艘弹道导弹潜艇。此外,还建造了六艘核动力攻击潜艇,以补充50台柴油动力攻击潜艇。

“The PLAN will likely maintain between 65 and 70 submarines through the 2020s, replacing older units with more capable units on a near one-to-one basis,” the report said.

报告称:“到2020年代,中共国海军计划将维持65至70艘潜艇,以能力更强的接近一对一的潜艇取代较老的潜艇。”

The Chinese navy also is building new conventional submarines that will be armed with advanced anti-ship cruise missiles.

中共国海军也在建造新型常规潜艇,将装备先进的反舰巡航导弹。

Since the mid-1990s, China purchased 12 Russian-made Kilo submarines armed with anti-ship cruise missiles and produced domestically 13 Song-class and 17 Yuan-class submarines. The Yuan uses a diesel-electric engine and is equipped with air independent propulsion — a system that allows for stealthier operations without surfacing. A total of 25 more Yuan submarines are being built in the next five years.

自1990年代中期以来,中共国购买了12艘配备反舰巡航导弹的俄制基洛(Kilo)级核潜艇,并在国内生产了13艘宋(Song)级和17艘元(Yuan)级潜艇。元级潜艇使用柴油-电动发动机,并配备空气独立推进系统,该系统可实现更隐蔽的操作而不会浮出水面。在未来五年内,(中共国)还将再建造25艘元级潜艇。

Nuclear missile submarine forces include 12 submarines built in the past 15 years — two Shang I class and four Shang II class boats and the six Jin-class submarines, two of which were awaiting entry into service in 2019.

核导弹潜艇部队包括在过去15年中建造的12艘潜艇-两艘商(Shang)I级潜艇和四艘商II级潜艇以及六艘晋级潜艇,其中两艘正在等待2019年服役。

“Equipped with the [JL-2] submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM), the PLAN’s four operational Jin-class [submarines] represent the PRC’s first credible sea-based nuclear deterrent,” the report said.

报告说:“中共国海军的四艘晋级潜艇装备有[JL-2]潜射弹道导弹(SLBM),代表了中共国第一个可靠的海基核威慑力量。”

But that’s not all. A new missile submarine is under development, known as the Type 096. Construction on that submarine is expected to begin in the next few years and will be outfitted with a new submarine-launched ballistic missile that was not identified in the report but is believed to be the JL-3.

但这还不是全部。中共国目前正在开发一种被称为096型的新型导弹潜艇。该潜艇的建造工作预计将在未来几年内开始,并将配备一种新的报告中未提及但据信是JL-3的潜射弹道导弹。

Both types of missile submarines will operate together and by 2030 the Pentagon estimates the PLAN will have up to eight missile submarines.

两种类型的导弹潜艇将一起运行。五角大楼估计,到2030年,中共国海军将拥有多达8艘导弹潜艇。

“This would align with [Chinese President Xi Jinping’s] 2018 directive for the SSBN force to achieve ‘stronger growth,’” the report said, using the naval code for missile submarines.

报告使用导弹潜艇海军代码说:“这与【中共国主席习近平的2018年指令】要求弹道导弹潜艇 (SSBN) 部队实现‘更强的增长’是一致的。”

The Pentagon has not said whether China’s nuclear missile submarines have conducted at-sea patrols with nuclear-tipped missiles. Beijing in the past separated nuclear warheads from all its strategic missiles.

五角大楼没有透露中共国的核导弹潜艇是否已经使用核弹头导弹进行海上巡逻。过去,北京当局将核弹头与所有战略导弹分开。

Chad Sbragia, U.S. deputy assistant defense secretary for China, declined to comment on whether China’s Jin-class ballistic missile submarines are conducting armed patrols.

美国负责中共国的国防部副部长助理查德·斯布拉贾(Chad Sbragia)拒绝就中共国的晋级弹道导弹潜艇是否在进行武装巡逻发表评论。

“Certainly the Jin is a submarine that does goes to sea from time to time,” Mr. Sbragia said at a forum hosted by the American Enterprise Institute. “And what their capacities are and how they’re loaded out and what their readiness is just not something I can dive into too deeply.”

斯布拉贾在美国企业研究所主办的论坛上说:“当然,晋级潜艇是有时会潜入海底的潜艇。至于它们的能力是什么,如何被装载以及它们的准备情况,我无法深入探讨。”

A nuclear submarine patrol without warheads would not be a real deterrent, analysts say.

分析人士称,没有核弹头的核潜艇巡逻将不会真正起到威慑作用。

By the mid-decade, China also will have a new guided missile nuclear-powered attack submarine called the Type 093B, a variant of the Shang-class submarine.

到本世纪中叶,中共国还将拥有一种新型制导导弹核动力攻击潜艇,称为093B型,是商级潜艇的一种变型。

“This new Shang-class variant will enhance the PLAN’s anti-surface warfare capability and could provide a clandestine land-attack option if equipped with land-attack cruise missiles,” the report said.

报告称:“这种新型商级潜艇变型将增强中共国海军的反水面作战能力,并且如果配备了对地攻击巡航导弹,它可以提供秘密的对地攻击选择。”

To counter U.S. submarine forces, the Chinese military is also bolstering its anti-submarine warfare capabilities with new warships and special mission aircraft.

为了对抗美国潜艇部队,中共国军方还通过增加新型军舰和特种任务飞机来增强其反潜作战能力。

PLA ‘nonwar’ operations

中共国人民解放军(PLA)的“非战争”行动

The PLA is engaged in two types of military operations — war and “nonwar” — activities that can involve the suppression of domestic unrest and the enforcement of maritime rights, according the latest China military power report from the Pentagon.

根据五角大楼最新的中共国军事力量报告,中共国人民解放军从事两种类型的军事行动:战争和“非战争”行动。这些活动可能涉及镇压国内动荡和行使海事权利。

Nonwar operations concepts have been discussed in Chinese military writings, and can also include humanitarian and disaster relief.

非战争行动的概念已经在中共国军事著作中进行了讨论,其中还包括人道主义和救灾。

The idea is that army’s nonwar military activities serve political purposes for the ruling Chinese Communist Party. These can include “the threat of violence or the use of violence from low levels to levels approaching war,” the report said.

这个想法是,军队的非战争军事活动为执政的中国共产党提供政治目的的服务。报告称,这些活动可能包括“暴力威胁或从低级到接近战争的暴力使用”。

These nonwar activities are used as strategic tools for the PLA military and are intended to serve Chinese interests and bolster Beijing’s effort to expand global interests.

这些非战争活动被用作解放军的战略工具,旨在为中共国利益家族服务,并加强北京当局扩大全球利益的努力。

Nonwar operations “can notably include operations in which the PLA uses coercive threats and/or violence below the level of armed conflict against states and other actors to safeguard the PRC’s sovereignty and national interests,” the report said.

报告称,非战争行动“尤其可以包括解放军在针对国家和其他行为者使用低于武装冲突级别的强制性威胁和/或暴力手段,以维护中共国的主权和国家利益。”

The operations also blend military and law enforcement functions as part of China’s efforts to take control over the disputed South China Sea, where China is claiming 90% of the waterway that the United States and other regional powers regards as open international waters.

这些行动还兼具军事和执法职能,这是中共国对有争议的南中国海进行控制的努力的一部分,中共国在南海夺取了被美国和其他区域大国视为90%的水路权。

The Pentagon report said that the Chinese military is developing what President Xi Jinping calls an “informatized” military that will dominate all networks.

五角大楼的报告说,中共国军方正在发展习近平主席所说的“信息化”军队,其将主导所有网络。

“The PLA considers information operations (IO) as a means of achieving information dominance early in a conflict, and continues to expand the scope and frequency of IO in military exercises,” the report said. “The PRC presents a significant, persistent cyber espionage and attack threat to an adversary’s military and critical infrastructure systems.”

报告称:“解放军将信息作战(IO)视为在冲突初期实现信息优势的一种手段,并持续扩大军事演习中信息作战(IO)的范围和频率。中共国对敌人的军事和关键基础设施系统构成了持续的重大网络间谍活动和网络攻击威胁。”

China laundering currency hacks

中共国洗钱黑客

The Justice Department revealed recently that North Korean government hackers have conducted financial attacks on virtual currency exchanges with the help from Chinese money launderers.

司法部最近透露,朝鲜政府黑客在中共国洗钱者的帮助下对虚拟货币交易所进行了金融网络攻击。

In a civil forfeiture complaint made public Aug. 27, the department charged that the North Koreans have stolen “millions of dollars’ worth of cryptocurrency and ultimately laundered the funds through Chinese over-the-counter (OTC) cryptocurrency traders.”

在8月27日公开的民事没收投诉中,美国司法部指控朝鲜盗窃了“价值数百万美元的加密货币,并最终通过中共国场外(OTC)加密货币交易商洗钱”。

The complaint, U.S. officials say, is further evidence of covert Chinese support to North Korea criminal activities, in this case efforts to help Pyongyang obtain hard currency in circumvention of international sanctions.

美国官员说,这起诉讼进一步证明了中共国暗中支持朝鲜的犯罪活动,在该案中,中共国努力帮助平壤绕开国际制裁而获得硬通货。

“This case underscores the department’s ongoing commitment to counter the threat presented by North Korean cyber hackers by exposing their criminal networks and tracing and seizing their ill-gotten gains,” said Acting Assistant Attorney General Brian C. Rabbitt of the Justice Department’s Criminal Division.

司法部刑事司代理总检察长布莱恩·拉伯特(Brian Rabbitt)说:“该案强调了司法部的持续承诺,即通过暴露其犯罪网络并追踪和押取其不义之财来应对朝鲜网络黑客的威胁。”

In two cyberattacks, North Koreans hacked nearly $250 million worth of cryptocurrencies in late 2018 and $48.5 million in 2019.

在两次网络攻击中,朝鲜人在2018年末黑客了价值近2.5亿美元的加密货币,并在2019年黑客了4,850万美元。

“Over the subsequent months, the funds were laundered through several intermediary addresses and other virtual currency exchanges,” the department said.

司法部表示:“在随后的几个月中,资金是通过几个中介地址和其他虚拟货币交易所进行洗钱的。”

The complaint quoted from a report by a United Nations panel of experts that said the North Korean financial hacking is a hard-to-trace method for obtaining money for the regime.

联合国专家小组的一份报告援引该诉状称,朝鲜金融黑客入侵是为该政权获取资金的一种难以追踪的方法。

The U.N. report said many of the North Korean hackers operate under the direction of the Reconnaissance General Bureau, a civilian intelligence service, to “raise money for the country’s weapons of mass destruction programs, with total proceeds to date estimated at up to $2 billion.”

联合国报告说,许多朝鲜黑客在民用情报部门侦察总局的指导下开展行动,“为该国的大规模杀伤性武器计划筹集资金,迄今为止,总收益估计高达20亿美元。”

编辑:【喜马拉雅战鹰团】Edited by:【Himalaya Hawk Squad】