The contingency theory states that the "appropriate style of leadership is contingent on the requirements of a specific situation."
Four general approaches attempt to define leadership objectively without making judgements:
- Great men theory
- Situational approach
- Contingency theory
- Advocates of transactional approach
There are several advantages to viewing leadership in terms of adaptive work: points to pivotal importance, evaluate leadership in process and not imposing own hierarchy
TO LEAD OR MISLEAD?
Responses to disequilibrium are the product of evolutionary adaptations that transformed into routine problem
Adaptive work involves not only the assessment of reality but also the clarification of values.
Adaptive work requires leadership that allows and contains invention and change and pushes society to the next step.
Three forms of Disequilibrium:
1) The problem introduces no new challenge,
2) When no ready solution is presented to the problem, and so short term equilibrium is established with long term consequences.
3) Society may learn to meet new challenge.
Due to mutual vulnerability there are three major adjustments: our ethos of self-reliance that is tempted by interdependence, having to relate differently to enemies, and mutual trust must be shared by mutually shared enterprises and effort
The roots of authority
Having authority brings not only resources to bear but also serious constraints