Biotechnology Aubriel bufford


A process is which an exact copy of something or someone. Organisms that have equivalent genes are called clones. Here lately, major studies and research have gone into finding out more about cloning in hope to clone organs, animals, and maybe even humans.

How it works...

When cloning happens it is only necessary to acquire one egg. The DNA from that specific egg is extracted and implanted into another egg.

Cloning being used now

Cloning is currently happening. The name given is called artificial cloning and there are three types: gene cloning, reproductive cloning, and therapeutic cloning. Gene cloning is currently being done with the NHGRI (National Human Genome Research Institute) researchers. Gene cloning, also known as gene cloning, is duplicating genes or portions of DNA. Reproductive cloning is, researchers remove a adult somatic cell, such as a skin cell, from an animal that they wish to copy. They then transfer the DNA of the donor animal's somatic cell into an egg cell, or oocyte, that has had its own DNA-containing nucleus remove. Clones also occur naturally with plants and single felled organisms. They can somestime produce similar genetic offspring in a process of asexual reproduction.

Ethical issues of cloning

Reproductive cloning has the potential to create a person who once existed or someone who is still alive. This could possibly interfere with religious and societal values about human dignity. It could possibly interrupt with the basics of individual freedom, who you are as a a person and autonomy. Some present the arguement that reproductive cloning could help infertile couples get their dream of having a child. Some see human cloning as an option to prevent spreading on a injurious portions of DNA that run in the family without having to experience embryo screening or embryo selection.Therapeutic cloning offers the possibility of treating humans suffering from disease or injury but would require the destruction of human fetuses in the test tube.


  • Reproduction Cloning:
  • Parents who are not able to have children have the chance to have a family..
  • Same sex couples can have children without the use of donor sperm or donor eggs. The men would only require a surrogate to carry the clone until birth.
  • If a parent lost his/her child, they could always bring it back as a clone.
  • It would save animal species from becoming extinct.


  • Reproductive Cloning:
  • Cloning kids would present the idea of creating a child how the parent wishes them to look, they won't be naturally made.
  • Cloning would present a deep decline in difference among people in general. Clones could also be seen as outcasts or types of like robots compared to robots..
  • Children created by cloning wouldn't be able to live they're own life, they would be presented with the pressure of trying to be the person they were cloned from. Imagine discovering that you are the clone of a child your parents lost, and you live your life always being compared to the dead child.
  • 95% of animal cloning has ended in failure due to genetic defect which is why cloning is considered dangerous.
  • Many believe that cloning is going against God’s will. The clones would be made by man. Man would be seen as trying to play God. You could also create individuals that are unable to feel. They would probably be "robotic like". It is also believe that clones would be created without a soul.

Technlogy used

Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), also called nuclear transfer, performs a divergent technique than artificial embryo twinning, but it manufactures a similar outcome: an exact genetic copy of an individual. This was the same approach used to create Dolly the Sheep.

High Tech Genetics: Bioinformatics and Microarray

a. Basically what each topic is (other than my notes); how does it work? Bioinformatics is the science of collecting and analyzing complex biological data such as genetic codes. It has become a necessity in the analysis of microarray data. Micro arrays are know to scientists as alterations in a portion of DNA that may be the cause of disease. Micro arrays are used as a reaserch tool. Scientists use them to full advantage today by conducting large studies. They can also be used to study the acts of genes turning on and off in different cells. To calculate a persons DNA from a patients blood sample, the scientists must obtain it as well have an additional controlled sample. The scientist must proceed to then modify the DNA. You then have to proceed to breaking the DNA strand into small segments, labeling them with flourescent dye. The sets of DNA are placed into a chip and then you wait for the results as they bind to the DNA on the chip.

Microarrays are currently being used today. They have been largely used as "single-nucleotide-polymorphism" genotyping platforms. Many scientists refer to the "next wave" in bioinformatics as systems biology. Systems biology is a new method to tackle new and complicated biological questions. It will involve the integrations of genomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics.

Genes and modifications in them determine thenidentitiy, characteristics, and inheritance of every individual. The application of genetic science to humans has long been surrounded by apprehensions. The microarray test come with having informed consent, privacy, and confidentiality which could all be tampered with.

Benefits: Technique makes it possible to scrutinize the expression of thousands of genes, wide pinpointing of protein-binding DNA, systematic guarentees to lead to renovation in developing sensible techniques to therapy as well as to improvements in cancer diagnosis, persuading its entry into clinical practice in specialist centers and hospitals within the next few years.

Problems: There is a problem with inaccurate probe annotations and the sub-optimal design

When people are showing symptoms for no real reason, gene sequencing technologies may help in steering you in the right direction to find a diagnosis. Years ago doctors would've had to send data back to the United States for analysis.


Genetically MODIFIED organiSm

When a gene is relocated to improve or change another organism in a labratory, the result is a genetically modified organism. Another name is transgenic sense the transfer of genes take place. Plenty of methods to move genes to produce wanted characteristics. With an advantage of technology another technique is shown where you can physically see the desired trait moved or added to a plant to further its certain trait.

Many researchers dedicate there lives to furthering their knowledge of Genetically formed organisms. Argriculture plants are one of the talked about examples of genetically modified organisms. It helps make advances in manufacturing crops that mature faster and better. A number of animals as well have also been genetically maneuvered to increase yield and decrease the chance of contracting diseases.

Some ethical issues are it would cause stress for the animal(it is believed to do so), infringement with nature mingles with genes amid species, and there are protestations to consuming animal animal genes in plants and vice versa.

Pros: It helps food last longer, provides more nutritious value, makes food more resistant from pests, it is believed to provide environmental protection

Cons: Scientists are not sure what it could do to the human body, it could potentially be dangerous, it could potentially be harming us with out our knowledge since it's not required to be told to anyone in the US

Discussions take place many a times with scientists about what technology should actually be used. Recombinant DNA technology is used to replace or add genes. There are also methods used with GMO vectors.

Stem Cell Research

Adult stem cells: They can make identical copies of themselves for a real long time. This ability if referred to as long term self renewal. They can also give rise to mature cells that have unique functions.

Embryonic Stem Cells: These are pluripotent, meaning they are able to grow, into all, derivatives of the three germ layers. Stem cells from the inner cell mass of blastocyst, an early stage preimplantation embryo.

Stem Cell a research is used now learn about Adult and Embryonic cells but will benefit more once the advancements of technolo takes place.

Ethical Issues includes the demolishing of human embryos, (not give the cell to become a human being), there is an issue of individuals demeaning the power to produce all types of cells.

The benefits include the possible hope of replacing broken and damaged organs, creating treatments from the results from reaserch, it can also potentially cure plenty of diseases. The cons include that people think that it will interfere with human production because the cells have to potential to be humans, so it's seen as unfairly tampering with human rights.

Stem cell technology is apparently rapidly developing area of expertise that combines the participation of cell biologists, geneticists, and clinicians. It presents hope of effectual treatments of malignant disease as well as non malignant.

Gene Therapy & Genomic Medicine

Gene therapy: is the transplantation of normal genes into cells in place of missing or defective ones in order to correct genetic disorders. An experimental technique that uses genes to treat or prevent disease. It's designed to introduce genetic material into cells to compensate for abnormal genes.

Genomic Medicine: It can also be called personalized medicine, it's a way to customize medical care to your body's specific gene make up. It's seen as an "emerging medical discipline that involves using genomic information" Could maybe be a subset of precision medicine.

Attempts have/are being made but have had no real accomplishments or successes. Both are undergoing serious research still.

Ethical issues are, is that it could potentially be used to inflate a persons human characteristics, it would only be available to wealthy people because it would be a large sum of money to try, and it would society even more excluding of different people than we already are. Genomic Medicine: You would have to consider cultural and religious aspect of health and genetics, There would be a want of ethical standards for working with human researchers.

Gene therapy: Pros: Gene therapy could help replace inoperative cells. There would also be the possibility of obliterating of diseases. There is also so much more to discover in what gene therapy can actually do, there's so much prospective. Cons: There could a distinct increase in disorders, refashioning human capabilities is seen as inhumane. It could potentially damage your gene pool. Genomic Medicine: Pros: It would get a lot of attention in the business world, it would be something that everyone wanted to have and buy, It comes with a lot of healt benefits and guarantees, and the medicine would be much more effective. Cons: Technology is still developing so more ethical questions will pop up and there's lots of privacy issues.

e. Gene therapy: Bone marrow is removed from ones body and grown in a laboratory, its very simple, not too much complications. Genomic Medicine: Is very complicated and still growing and the research and knowledge that can be gained is very far and wide as well as the technology but researches have yet to get to that part.

Designer Babies & Bioethics

Designer Babies: Is a baby genetically engineered in vitro for specially selected traits. This can vary from lowered disease-risk to gender selections. Designer Babies were primarialy a science fiction concept up until the talk and research of genetic engineering and in vitro fertilization.

Bioethics: Ethics it self is a philosophical discipline pertaining to notions of good and bad, right and wrong, Bopiomethics is the application of ethics to the field of medicine and health care. Bio ethics blends philosophy, theology, history, and law with medicine, nursing, health policy, and that medical humanities.

b. Bio ethics is not a one time thing, it always applies to further projects and research in biology. Designer Babies are trying to become current and it expected to be more popular.

Designer Babies are believed to be unnatural to create your own baby instead of giving them a chance to be what they originally would've been. There's a possibility that is the child were to find that there parents basically cut and paste their child, it could be a serious conflict with the Parent/Child relationship.

Benefits are that you could prevent your child from having family diseases passed on to them and furthermore. Parents are able to give child a healthier lifestyle by eliminating diseases and such. It also almost eliminates the chance of adopting a medical condition.

There is no real significant technology out there for designing your baby because it's still a developing field. CRISPR is a technology that is used to help "create" your baby. It gives scientists the opportunity to cut and add genes to animals and such.


Epigenetics:Is the study of changes in organisms caused by modification of gene expression rather than alteration of the genetic code. Epigenetics is in relation to how your body can cut on and turn offf certain genes. Epigenetics also helps how your body cells specialize and gain certain functions.

Epigenetics is current thing that's been happening for centuries, but it took a while to put a name to it and study it.

Benefits: It causes you to be different, it changes skin cells and brain cells in your body.

Cons: Scientists say that it is a huge cause in different cancers and what not.

Epigenetics technology is making advancements in assessments of enzymes.

DNA Fingerprinting & Crime Scene Investigation

DNA Fingerprint: is a test to identify and evaluate the genetic information (DNAM) a cells. It is also called DNA profiling. It can be very useful in a Crime Scene Investigation. The fact that it can identify a partially decomposed body with a finger print is an amazing advance in technology. Crime Scene Investigation: is referring to science being used to determining facts during legal proceedings.

DNA Fingerprinting and Crime Scene Investigation is currently being used today and will remain in use probably until the day we die. It will definitely improve in the future.

Ethical issues that are associated with sharing genetic information with a system of people. There could be a problem with discrimination. There is also a problem of innapropiate applications testing, and seeking limits applications of genetic technology.

Benefits: You can solve crimes and you can also prove that people that are falsely convicted, innocent, and it's also a simple testing method instead of being too aggressive.

Cons:People have the problem of their privacy being violated and racial profiling. It's also against a persons will when being fingerprinted which bothers many individuals. It's also sways juries in whatever they beforehand applied to the person.

The technology breaks down DNA into portions which is put down in a process of being marked down and scanned on an x-ray, where black lines are formed in the shape of your finger and recorded to be able to identify you in the future.

Personal Ancestry & ,Paternity Kits

Personal ancestry- is who, what and where you derive from and what race or cultures makes you who you are. Paternity test are used to indentify your family by your DNA.

Paternity tests are used all the time and personal ancestry becomes more popular everyday.

There are no ethical issues to be found for people are doing it at there own will without force.

Benefits: you are able to be satisfied by who and what you come from and just maybe who you belong to in some situations.

Your DNA is extracted and compared to others in order to identify the basics of your origin.

PCR & Gel Electrophoresis

Polymerase chain reaction(PMR): is laboratory method used to make plentiful copies of a gene. Gel electrophoresis: Scietific approach to break apart mixtures of DNA, RNA, or proteins.

Polymerase Chain Reaction(PMR) is used today as well as Gel Electrophoresis. They will become easier and a lot more common once technology allows its advancements.

Polymerase chain reaction issues- People believe that DNA should be left on its own.

Genetic Electrophoresis- It does have much, its actually a good thing in the way it helps us in Crime and Investigation.

PCR benefits: PCR is very delicate, DNA is boosted from DNA from one cell, Old and new DNA can also amplify other DNA.

PCR cons include the sensitivity of PCR is also a disadvantage since small portions of DNA amplified.

Gel electrophoresis Pro-incereased resolving power, pore sizes are uniform(acrylimade).

Gel electrophoresis con- you have to wait for the gel to set, you have to be really careful so gas bubbles are removed.

The gel consists of of acrylamide and biasacrylamide, Electricity stabilizer,gel caster, filters, and syringes.

Plamisd, Recombinant DNA, and Transgenic Organisms

Genetic structure in a cell that can replicate independently of the chromosomes, it's usally a small circle DNA strand in cytoplasm of protozoan or bacterium. Researchers can insert DNA fragments or genes into a plasmid vector, creating a so called recombinant plasmid. Recombinant DNA is formed by restriction enzymes

Yes they are all used. Some get used more than others sometimes depending on the need or use but they are all used today.

People beileive that containing DNA and the organisms like that are dangerous. Scientists have told people that it is safe but other group think different.

Benifits are transgenic animals, crop improve was also seen as a benefit.

Cons include recombinant organisms contaminating the natural environment, one disease could eliminate them all because they are clones.

Technology used in transgenic organisms is only a possibility because of the Recombinant DNA technology.

Works Cited

Nature. com

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