America in the cold war and civil rights years. BY LOU FALIGOT

the state of political hostility that existed between the Soviet bloc countries and the US-led Western powers from 1945 to 1990.
The Iron Curtain was the name for the boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991.
The principle that the US should give support to countries or peoples threatened by Soviet forces or communist insurrection. First expressed in 1947 by US President Truman in a speech to Congress seeking aid for Greece and Turkey, the doctrine was seen by the communists as an open declaration of the Cold War.
The Marshall Plan was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $12 billion in economic support to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of world.
US begin Berlin Airlift. On this day in1948, US and British pilots begin delivering food and supplies by airplane to Berlin after the city is isolated by a Soviet Union Blockade.
Containment Policy is a united states policy doctrine adopted by the Harry S. Truman administration in 1947, operating on the principle that communist government will eventually fall appart as long as they are prevent from expanding their influence.
Mao Zedong was a Chinese communist revolutionary and founding father of the people,s republic of china.
The Korean War began when North Korea invaded South Korea. The United Nations, with the United States as the principal force, came to the aid of south korea. China came to the aid of North Korea, and the soviet Union gave some assistance.
Sputnik is the world's first artificial satellite was about the size of a basketball, weighed only 183 pounds, and took about 98 minutes to orbit the Earth on its elliptical path. This was launched by the soviet union.
House Un-American activities committee, a committee of the US house of representatives, created to investigate disloyalty and subversive organizations. It first chairman, Martin Dies, set the pattern for its anti-communist investigation.
The Rosenberg trials is a court case involving Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, an american couple who were executed in 1953 as spies for the Soviet Union.
The Venona papers is a list of americans from codenames contained in the verona project, an american government effort from 1943-1980 to decrypt coded messages by intelligence forces if the Soviet Union.
McCarthyism is the practice of making accusations of subversion or treason without proper regard for evidence.
Jonas Salk was an american medical researcher and virologist. He discovered and developed one of the first successful polio vaccines.
The civil rights movement is a social movement in the united states whose goals were to end racial segregation and discrimination against african american and to secure legal recognition and federal protection of the citizenship rights enumerated in the constitution and federal law.
Poesy v. Ferguson was a landmark constitutional law case of the US supreme Court. It upheld state racial segregation laws for public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal".
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
Thurgood Marshall was an associate Justice of the supreme court of the united states, serving from october 1967 until october 19991. Marshall was the court's 96th justice and it's first african-american justice.
martin Luther King Jr was an american baptist minister and activist who was a leader in the civil rights movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civi rights using nonviolent civil disobedience based on his christian beliefs.
Rosa Parks was a black seamstress from Montgomery, Alabama, who, in 1955, refused to give up her seat on a Montgomery city bus to a white person, as she was legally required to do.
Orval Faubus was the Democratic Governor of Arkansas from 1955 to 1967, famously known for his vigorous stand against the desegregation of Little Rock Central High School in 1957. In 1957, Governor Faubus deployed National Guardsmen to block Supreme Court-ordered school integration.
Lester Maddox was an American politician who served as the 75th Governor of the U.S. state of Georgia from 1967 to 1971.
George Wallace was an American politician and the 45th Governor of Alabama, having served two nonconsecutive terms and two consecutive terms as a Democrat
The cvil rights acts is a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
Affirmative action or policy favoring those who tend to suffer from discrimination, especially in relation to employment or education; positive discrimination.
Billy Graham is an American evangelical Christian evangelist, ordained as a Southern Baptist minister, who rose to celebrity status in 1949 reaching a core constituency of middle-class, moderately conservative Protestants.

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