There were new religious movements such as the 2nd great awakening which emphasized the role that individuals played in their society. Another movement was Transcendtalism. It was the belief in the goodness of a man. A Transcendentalist was Henry David Thoreau. He said people should disobey the laws which he called Civil Disobedience.
Abolitionists are people who wanted to end slavery. They were a very small minority of Americans. A lot of them came from the cities in the North, but most of them cam from the upper south.
The Women's rights movement in the 19th century. the 1st Women's rights convention was held at Seneca Falls, New York. Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Candy Stanton led the convention. They believed that women should be able to vote and take office just like men.
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It is the name given to the goal of changing public education. Reformers wanted to make education more available to children. Most children didn't even go to school at the time. Reformers believed that education would help children escape poverty and become good citizens. When Mann became Massachusetts state supervisor of education, the citizens agreed to pay taxes to build better schools. By 1850's many states followed this idea.
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Dorothea Dix was a woman who visited a prison and saw the bad quality of the prison. People were just sent to prison for small debts and disabilities or if you were mentally ill. Dix travelled to a lot of the prisons and saw the pattern of the prisoners and the bad quality, so she issued a report. Lawmakers saw this and, this led to the reform of outlawing cruel punishments and stopped debtors' prisons.
The temperance movement was the effort to encourage moderation in drinking alcohol. Reformers blamed most of the problems on alcohol, and said that if not in moderation it could kill you. Later Maine banned the sale of alcohol and later so did other states, later this reform was repealed.