A solar eclipse is when the moon blocks out the sun. This is happens when the moon crosses the sun's path. Since the moon is inclined by 5 degrees to the earth's orbit, we don't have them every month.
A lunar eclipse is when the moon passes directly behind the earth's umbra. This only occurs when the sun, earth, and moon are aligned. The moon looks red because the sun is in front of the moon and the colors combine.
a partial eclipse is an eclipse of the sun when it is partially hidden. We don't have them every month because the moon is on a 5 degree incline.