The Industrial Revolution begin in Great Britain in the last part of the 18th century. It emerged in Great Britain because of their recent agricultural revolution, they had a stable government that passed laws to secure private property, their was a surplus amount of people who needed work, and people wanted to invest in new industrial machines. Their was also a big need for supply and demand.
Technology During the Industrial Revolution:
The Cotton Industry: It is where the Industrial Revolution started and it was because they had made major changes to the factories modernizing them. They used inventions like the flying shuttle, spinning jenny, water frame spinning machine, rotary engine, power loom and the spinning mule.
The Steam Engine: The steam engine was made because they needed more efficient pumps. The steam engine made cotton goods cheaper which made the the most popular in the world. It boosted the economy. The success of the steam engine was good for Britain because it was dependent upon coal and they had a lot of coal.
The Iron Industry: The iron industry was transformed because of the system of pudding. This is when a coke was used to burn away impurities in pig iron to produce an iron of high quality. The iron industry caused a big boom. The iron industry transformations was due to the fact for the demands of new machines.
Revolution In Transportation: A Revolution in Transportation occurred because the entrepreneurs wanted a better way to move their goods and resources around. They invented railway locomotives like the steam locomotive which is what helped keep Britain on top in civil and mechanical engineering.
The Industrial Factory: This factory is how everybody begin to order their factories. It put new values on how a factory should be ran. It made the factory life harsh on the workers. Most of the workers were women and children. The industrial factory affected the live of the workers because the no longer owned the means to economic production and could only sell their labor for a wage. This cause the Great Exhibition.
The Spread of Industrialization:
Limitations to Industrialization: Europe was behind England in the industrial revolution because of their lack of roads and transportation. A big impact on the continent was the National System of Political Embassy because it made way for use of protective tariffs which protected domestic industrialization. It also advocated for large scale industrialization to create national strength. The continent as a whole was dependent on joint-stock market investments.
Centers of Continental Industrialization: In 1815 the industrial Revolution begin to take off in Belgium, France, and Germany. It was a generation behind Britain because of the manufacturing of cotton goods. In these places the textile industry led the way and the iron and coal of heavy industry led the way on the continent.
The Industrial Revolution in the US: The Industrial Revolution of the US employed a lot of women in the US. The US needed a good transportation system to industrialize. The US versus Britain was different because in the US their was a lot more unskilled people that went to the US then in Europe.
The Social Impact of the Industrial Revolution:
Population Growth: Their was a dramatic population in the 19th century. The big population was due to the fact that the famine had left western Europe. So when the Irish potato famine was handled the towns and cities were able to flourish.
The Growth of Cities: So the beginning of the Industrial Revolution they focused on urbanization which led and was connected to the industrialization. During this time their was terrible health and unsanitary towns. Their was also a lot of criminal activity going on. Edwin Chadwick worked to reform these towns he wanted to end poverty and advocated for modern sanitary reforms. This led to the first Public Health Act.
New Social Classes: The most prominent social class during this time was the industrial middle class or the bourgeoise.. They were very entrepeneurial. These people normally had diverse social backgrounds. In the 1850's his entrepeneurial middle class begin to be replaced with the business aristocracy. These entrepreneurs had a very important role in the industrial revolution and so did the traditional landed elites. Another important Social Class was the workers. This was the largest group it was made up of members of the guild. This people would work in harsh condition for a long time for a small amount of money. They worked 12-16 hours a day, 6 days a week, and got no job security or minimum wage. Their was a lot of the workers that were women and children. They chose to use children because they had a delicate touch, they were smaller, they were broken to factory work, and they were a cheap labor supply. These children were treated very badly.
Standard of Living: The impacts on the standard of living was that it now benefited the middle class, led to much increased disparity between the richest and poorest in society, and eventually got people real wages. It also caused an economic cycle of expansion and contraction. So the periodic overproduction would cause a hard phase for the country and this was devastating to the towns who relied on one industry.
Efforts at Change: The Workers: These workers looked towards labor organization to get a decent amount of money and decent working conditions. Their was a Combination Act that was passed outlawing associations of workers. There was trade unions and they served to purposes to preserve their own workers’ position by limiting entry into their trade and to gain benefits from the employers. Some trade unions decided they wanted to strike back and this caused parliament to repeal the Combination Act. They started to accept the argument that MPs who stated that the acts themselves caused labor unrest. This unions were soon tolerated and they even started to want national unions.
Luddites: These people were skilled craftspeople in the Midlands that believed they should attack the machines because it messed with their livelihood. These attacks did fail to stop the industrial mechanization.
Chartists: These people believed that their should be a political democracy and that the workers should have a voice in Great Britain. This was generated by terrible working class conditions. In 1838 the People's Charter was drawn up and it demanded universal male suffrage payment for MPs, and annual sessions of Parliament.
Efforts at Change: Reformer and Government: The Factory Acts were passed between 1802 to 1819 which banned employment of children under the age of nine, limited labor for children from nine to sixteen to twelve hours a day, stipulated that children were to receive instruction in reading and arithmetic during working hours, and had no method of enforcement and only applied to cotton mills. The efforts for industrial reform brought forth the reduction of working hours for children, the outlawing of women and children working in coal mines, and requirement of daily education of working children.