Spain was a great place you could trade and it was peaceful, until the Celtas invadido. The Celtas were from present day France and conquered the northern part of Spain. Just after the Celtas conquered the northern part of Spain, the Iberos tomó over the southern part of Spain. The Celtas and the Iberos formado together and creado the Celtiberos they were the first to inhabit Spain. Shortly after the Celtiberos formed Rome takes over Spain, but in 409 A.D. the Imperio Romano caídas.
Throughout the peninsula there's no peace, Christian and Muslims luchado. They fought for their religion. Christians querido the Musulmanes to creer in Jesus and the Muslims refused. Santiago the patron saint of Spain had a famous war llorar "Matamoros" which meant killer of Moors. In 1492 the Moors dividido into many small kingdoms. Fernando of Aragon marries Isabel of Castilla, and they unir the Reinos Cristianos against the Moors. Ending the Reconquista by defeating the last Moorish king.
Fernando and Isabel had a daughter named Juana. Juana marries Felipe a very handsome man from the powerful Habsburg family. When Felipe died legend has it that Juana carried his coffin through the streets of Granada, stopping often to kiss the dead corpse of the dead king. Felipe and Juana had a son his name was Carlos I. Under Carlos's I rule the Imperio Español grew rapidly Oro, plata, nuevos cultivos and frutas came into Spain from the Americas.
When Spain was under the rule of Carlos V it became one of the strongest defenders of Catolicismo, as it fought to stop the spread of Reforma Protestante across Europe. When Carlos V died he passed on his legacy to his son Felipe II. In 1554 Felipe II married Mary Tudor of England in an attempt to create an international Catholic alliance. A male heir from this marriage would have become King of England, however, there was no son and the protestant Elizabeth I came to power in England. Annexed Portuga, Dutch declared independence from Spain which starts war involving England. During the war Spain's Armada is defeated by England.
Felipe II is succeeded by his son Felipe III. In 1621 Felipe III dies and his son Felipe IV takes over the trono. Felipe IV reigns over the Siglo de Oro. The Siglo de Oro was one of the richest cultural periods in Spanish history. Felipe IV had a son named Carlos II. Carlos II dies in 1700, leaving no heir to the throne of Spain and no more Habsburgs.
The rebellion of 2 May 1808 in Madrid began the War of Spanish Independence. In 1812 Joseph Bonaparte is remoto from the throne of Spain. The Constitution of 1812 establishes a parliamentary monarchy in Spain. Fernando VII the son of Carlos IV, returns from exile in France to rule after defeat of Napoleon’s troops. Fernando VII created a totalitarian rule, constantly at odds with liberals who wanted to expand on Constitution of 1812. Fernando VII dies in 1833, leaving only a daughter, Isabel II. When Isabel II takes the throne Spain is divided on the issue of a woman ruler. Supporters of Fernando's brother, Carlos face off against more liberal supporters of Isabel in several “Guerras Carlistas”. Isabel II rules through political turmoil, with the Carlists continually opposing her authority. During the "La Gloriosa Revolución” Isabel II is removed from power. Instead of Isabel II king Amadeo de Saboya, an italiano, takes the throne.
In 1873 the first Spanish Republic is proclaimed, however it ends in 1874. The Bourbons return to the throne with the reign of Alfonso XII from 1875 -1885, followed by his son Alfonso XII from 1902-1931. Alfonso XIII was born in 1885, and his mother oversaw the government as his regent in the interim. Spain quickly begins a downslide, marked by the loss of it last remaining colonies in 1989 and embarrassing military defeats in Morocco. Unable to put stop to the political tension and low morale of the country, Alfonso XII allows a military general to establecer a dictatorship from 1923-1931. The dictatorship is not a success. So In 1931, elections are held to determine if Spain should continue a monarchy or dar democracy another try.
The Second Republic of Spain is established in 1931, ushering in an era of hope and optimism. The Republic sets up a new, progressive constitution, which gives women the right to vote, allows divorce, separates the Church from the State, and crea public schools. The new government creates an even deeper political and social divide. The military, the Church, and the upper classes think there are too many changes going on. While, Socialists and Communist factions think there are not enough changes and querer more change. The result of this is a Civil War!
General Francisco Franco stages a military revuelta in 1936, beginning the Civil War. Franco’s fascist troops are aided by forces from Germany and Italy. The Republican forces get very little help, and the war ends in 1939, with Franco’s Nationalist forces winning. Francisco Franco becomes the dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975. Francisco idealized “glory years” of Spain under Carlos V and Felipe II. Francisco Franco chooses grandson of Alfonso XIII to take over. Upon Franco’s death in 1975, Juan Carlos I de Borbon becomes King of Spain.
Instead of continuing Franco’s policies or establishing an absolute monarchy, Juan Carlos declares democracy in Spain. He names Adolfo Suarez as first Prime Minister. Suarez begins the period known as the Transition. In 1978, Suarez is elected in the first elections held in Spain since 1936. In the 80’s Felipe Gonzalez leads Spain out of isolation, joining NATO and the EU. Jose Maria Aznar increases Spain’s influence in the world, with a growing economy and a strong alliance with the USA.
On March 11, 2004, Islamic fundamentalist terrorists place bombs on several commuter trains in Madrid, killing nearly 200 and injuring over 2000. 2 days after the attack, elections proclaim Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero the new Prime Minister of Spain. His first action, as promised, was to withdraw Spanish troops from the US war with Iraq. Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero won re-election in 2008. As a parliamentary monarchy, Spain retains its royal family, although all government decisions are handled by Parliament and the President of the Government.