Grutter vs Bollinger Affirmative Action

Barbara Grutter, a white Michigan resident
The University of Michigan Law School Graduate Admissions

Summary: Barbara Grutten applied to the University of Michigan Law School.She had all the right scores to be accepted but was not due to her race.The university admitted of using race as a factor admission decisions because they wanted to make the school divers.She sued the Law School in federal district court, claiming racial discrimination against her in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment.The Supreme Court ruled that the use of affirmative action in school admission is constitutional if it treats race as one factor among many but not alone.

Federal district court, claimed racial discrimination against her in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment.

Long term:Universities can use your trace as a factor along with others,but they can determine admission just based on race. Immediate:The Court made clear that affirmative action programs are only constitutional if they consider race as one factor in an individualized evaluation, and only to achieve the goal of "class diversity."

Definition of affirmative action:an active effort to improve the employment or educational opportunities of members of minority groups and women sought to achieve a multicultural staff through affirmative action; also : a similar effort to promote the rights or progress of other disadvantaged persons

Timeline

October 14, 1997 - Gratz v. Bollinger, is filed in federal court in the Eastern District of Michigan. The University of Michigan is sued by white students, including Jennifer Gratz and Patrick Hamacher, who claim the undergraduate and law school affirmative action policies using race and/or gender as a factor in admissions is a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment or Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.. Barbara Grutter, denied admission to the University of Michigan Law School, claims that other applicants, with lower test scores and grades, were given an unfair advantage due to race.December 3, 1997 - A similar case, Grutter v. Bollinger, is filed in federal court in the Eastern District of Michigan.December 2000 - The judge in the Gratz v. Bollinger case rules that the University of Michigan's undergraduate admissions policy does not violate the standards set by the Supreme Court.March 2001 - The judge in the Grutter v. Bollinger case rules the University of Michigan Law School's admissions policy is unconstitutional.December 2001 - The Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals hears appeals in both University of Michigan cases.May 14, 2002 - The Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals reverses the district court's decision in Grutter v. Bollinger.January 17, 2003 - The administration of President George W. Bush files a friend-of-the-court brief with the Supreme Court, opposing the University of Michigan's affirmative action program.April 1, 2003 - The U.S. Supreme Court hears oral arguments on the two cases. U.S. Solicitor General Theodore Olson offers arguments in support of the plaintiffs.June 23, 2003 - The Supreme Court rules on Grutter v. Bollinger that the University of Michigan Law School may give preferential treatment to minorities during the admissions process. The Court upholds the law school policy by a vote of five to four.June 23, 2003 - In Gratz v. Bollinger, the undergraduate policy in which a point system gave specific "weight" to minority applicants is overturned six to three.December 22, 2003 - The Supreme Court rules that race can be a factor in universities' admission programs but it cannot be an overriding factor. This decision affects the Grutter and Gratz cases.November 7, 2006 - The Michigan electorate strikes down affirmative action by approving a proposition barring affirmative action in public education, employment, or contracting.January 31, 2007 - After the Supreme Court sends the case back to district court; the case is dismissed. Gratz and Hamacher settle for $10,000 in administrative costs, but do not receive damages.

  • October1997 - Gratz v. Bollinger.
  • June 23, 2003 - The Supreme Court rules on Grutter v. Bollinger that the University of Michigan Law School may give preferential treatment to minorities during the admissions process.
  • December 3, 1997 - A similar case, Grutter v. Bollinger, is filed in federal court in the Eastern District of Michigan
  • December 2001 - The Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals hears appeals in both University of Michigan cases
  • December 22, 2003 - The Supreme Court rules that race can be a factor in universities' admission programs but it cannot be an overriding factor.

Sources

  1. https://www.oyez.org/cases/2002/02-241
  2. http://www.cnn.com/2013/11/12/us/affirmative-action-fast-facts/
  3. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/future/landmark_grutter.html
  4. http://www.casebriefs.com/blog/law/professional-responsibility/professional-responsibility-keyed-to-hazard/the-structure-of-legal-practice-professional-responsibility-keyed-to-hazard/grutter-v-bollinger-2/
  5. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/affirmative%20action

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