Liver Cancer by Andrew Saldamarco

DEFINITION OF THE CANCER

What happens to the cells?

  • Stage 1 - One tumor that has not grown into any blood vessels and has not moved to any distant places in the body.
  • Stage 2 - Either one tumor has grown into blood vessels OR there are several tumors (all are 5 cm or less across). Has not moved to any distant place in the body.
  • Stage 3A - There is more than one tumor and at least one is more than 5 cm. Has not moved to any distant place in the body.
  • Stage 3B - At least one tumor is growing into a major vein in the liver. Has not moved to any distant place in the body.
  • Stage 3C - A tumor is growing into another organ OR a tumor has grown into the outer layer of the liver. Has not moved to any distant place in the body.
  • Stage 4A - Tumors can be any size and can be grown into blood vessels or organs. Has spread to nearby lymph nodes but not to distant places.
  • Stage 4B - The cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

What part of the body does it generally affect?

  • Liver cancer generally affects the liver organ in the body

What gene(s) is/are mutated?

  • A specific gene is not linked to liver cancer but there are certain chemicals that cause DNA damage in the liver cells

SYMPTOMS

  • weight loss (without trying)
  • loss of appetite
  • feeling full after a small meal
  • nausea or vomiting
  • enlarged spleen
  • enlarged liver
  • abdomen pain
  • swelling or fluid buildup in the abdomen
  • itching
  • yellowing of the skin or eyes

CAUSES

  • Hepatitis B or C
  • Cirrhosis
  • liver diseases
  • Diabetes
  • nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
  • alcohol consumption

Can the cancer be inherited?

  • No

PREVENTION

  • reduce chances of getting Hepatitis B or C
  • reduce alcohol consumption and smoking
  • control/maintain weight
  • reduce exposure to cancerous chemicals

TREATMENT

Typically, treatment includes:

  • surgery
  • radiation
  • chemotherapy
  • nutrition is important to maintain weight (risk factor of liver cancer)

DIAGNOSIS

Tests?

  • blood tests
  • liver tissue examinations

Scans?

  • MRI
  • CAT
  • ultransound

COMMON TYPES OF PEOPLE WITH LIVER CANCER

  • Males are more susceptible to liver cancer because they are more common to have more of the risk factors for liver cancer.
  • Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders
  • people with obesity
  • people with Type 2 Diabetes

CITATIONS

Articles

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/liver-cancer/symptoms-causes/dxc-20198168

https://www.cancer.org/cancer/liver-cancer/detection-diagnosis-staging/signs-symptoms.html

https://www.cancer.org/cancer/liver-cancer/causes-risks-prevention/prevention.html

https://www.cancer.org/cancer/liver-cancer/treating.html

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/liver-cancer/diagnosis-treatment/diagnosis/dxc-20198176

https://www.cancer.org/cancer/liver-cancer/causes-risks-prevention/risk-factors.html

https://www.cancer.org/cancer/liver-cancer/if-you-have-liver-cancer.html

https://www.cancer.org/cancer/liver-cancer/detection-diagnosis-staging/staging.html

Pictures

http://www.surgery.usc.edu/hepatobiliary/pg-howlivercancerdevelops.html

http://www.sde.co.ke/thenairobian/article/2000131461/we-don-t-smoke-we-re-kisiis

https://stanfordhealthcare.org/medical-tests/p/pet-mri-scan.html

http://www.hd-fit.net/HD-Fitness-Nutrition.html

https://www.google.com/search?q=cancerous+cells&rlz=1C1CHZL_enUS685US685&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj--MXKyOfSAhVGSSYKHf0BDUUQ_AUICCgB&biw=1280&bih=590&safe=active&ssui=on#imgdii=kx1vBo3PmfvpLM:&imgrc=9KkfefsfPZYsWM:

Credits:

Created with images by Filter Forge - "Luminous Cells" • geralt - "anatomy man human"

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