UNIT 1 Geography tools Carla losantos rodríguez


The science which studies the Earth from a spatial perspective. There are two types: 1.- REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY 2.- GENERAL GEOGRAPHY

GEOGRAPHY IS USED ... To describe the Earth and its people. Also aims to understand and explain the Earth´s space.

AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH... Are taken from an aircraft. The photographs can be in black and white, try colour or false colour.

MAPS... Two main types: 1.- TOPOGRAPHIC 2.- THEMATIC

ELEMENTS OF A MAP... Title, Geographic coordinate system, Orientation symbol, Toponymy, Scale and The map key or legend

The geographic coordinate system is made up of imaginary lines, called meridians and parallels.


GRAPHS - Is a representation of numerical data. Graphs can show the evolution of data over time as well as the relationships between different data. There are many types of graphs. The most common are line graphs, bar graphs and pie charts:

BAR GRAPHS are used to compare the same fact at different times, places or categories.

LINE GRAPH shows the value of a variable with lines.

PIE CHARTS are used to represent the distribution of data.


STATE - is a political unit with supreme authority over a territory and its inhabitants.

A STATE is made up of a territory which has: - defined, internationally recognized boundaries. - a permanent population which is governed by the same government and the same laws. - identifying symbols, such as a flag, a capital, a national anthem, and currency.

CITIZENS - are the permanent population who inhabit the territory os a state. NATION - is a group of people with a common identity.

States guarantee certain fundamental rights to their citizens, such as freedom of association or free speech.

States issues laws to govern its territory and population. States create institutions to enforce decisions: -the police maintain public orden. -the armed forces defend the state from invasion. -the diplomatic corps promotes international relations. -public officials and civil servants carry out policies.

A WORLD OF STATES How to interpret a political map: Location- is it in the coast or inland? Size- is it a micro-state, a small state or a large state? Shape- is it elongated, compact or fragmented? Borders-look for lines or colors. Is it natural or artificial? Capital- represented by a dot or a start. Is there one or more than one?

FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE: Mantain order whithin their territory. Defend the territory and the population. Establish international relationships. Pass laws. Provide basic services. Regulate the economy.

THE WELFARE STATE: intervenes in the economy to provide all citizens with an acceptable standard of living, and to lessen social inequalities.

Pilares del estado: educación, sanidad, pensiones, subsidios de desempleo, ayuda a las personas dependientes.

CITIZEN PARTICIPATION: Inclusive- All citizens of legal age should have the right to vote. Participative- all citizens and political parties should have the right to stand as candidates and present political programs freely if they respect the rules. Periodic- this prevents people from perpetuating their own power. Open and fair- the voting process should be a secret, and results should be counted openly.

THE SEPARATION OF POWER In democracies, power is divided among several branches. As a result, no single person or group can control the state. The separation of powers protects people from abuse by the authorities because the three branches control each other.

THE CONSTITUTION The highest law in states which are ruled by law is the constitution. It defines the state, the rights and the obligations of the people. At the same time, it limits the power of institutions. Gif the government does not respect a person`s rights, he or she can turn to the courts to rectify the situation.

In a DICTATORSHIP, absolute power of the state is concentrated in one person or one group. Dictators use violence to gain power in a revolution or coup d'état. Some characteristics: -There is no citizen participation. -There is no separation of powers. -Violations of human rights are common. -There are no institutions to defend people against violations of human rights.


POPULATION. The Russian Federation has the biggest population. The next in population size are Germany, France and the United Kingdom. The least populated state is the Vatican City. WEALTH. Germany is the major economic power. However, Luxembourg has the highest income per capita.



Tema 8.

Created By
Carla Losantos Rodriguez


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