MAPS... Two main types: 1.- TOPOGRAPHIC 2.- THEMATIC
STATE - is a political unit with supreme authority over a territory and its inhabitants.
A STATE is made up of a territory which has: - defined, internationally recognized boundaries. - a permanent population which is governed by the same government and the same laws. - identifying symbols, such as a flag, a capital, a national anthem, and currency.
CITIZENS - are the permanent population who inhabit the territory os a state. NATION - is a group of people with a common identity.
States guarantee certain fundamental rights to their citizens, such as freedom of association or free speech.
States issues laws to govern its territory and population. States create institutions to enforce decisions: -the police maintain public orden. -the armed forces defend the state from invasion. -the diplomatic corps promotes international relations. -public officials and civil servants carry out policies.
A WORLD OF STATES How to interpret a political map: Location- is it in the coast or inland? Size- is it a micro-state, a small state or a large state? Shape- is it elongated, compact or fragmented? Borders-look for lines or colors. Is it natural or artificial? Capital- represented by a dot or a start. Is there one or more than one?
FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE: Mantain order whithin their territory. Defend the territory and the population. Establish international relationships. Pass laws. Provide basic services. Regulate the economy.
THE WELFARE STATE: intervenes in the economy to provide all citizens with an acceptable standard of living, and to lessen social inequalities.
Pilares del estado: educación, sanidad, pensiones, subsidios de desempleo, ayuda a las personas dependientes.
CITIZEN PARTICIPATION: Inclusive- All citizens of legal age should have the right to vote. Participative- all citizens and political parties should have the right to stand as candidates and present political programs freely if they respect the rules. Periodic- this prevents people from perpetuating their own power. Open and fair- the voting process should be a secret, and results should be counted openly.