The national questionnaire, which forms part of the Indigenous Navigator, has been used by Perú Equidad to monitor implementation of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, ILO Convention 169, the Outcome Document of the World Conference on Indigenous Peoples, and the essential aspects of the Sustainable Development Goals in relation to the rights of Andean and Amazonian indigenous peoples.
Indigenous peoples in the country
Peru is a pluriethnic state comprising different native peoples. With the aim of ensuring implementation of prior consultation, the Peruvian Ministry of Culture has identified 55 peoples. Fifty-one (51) of these are Amazonian: Achuar, Amahuaca, Arabela, Ashaninka, Asheninca, Awajun, Bora, Cashinahua, Chamicuro, Chapra, Chitonahua, Eje Eja, Harakbut, Ikitu, Iñapari, Isconahua, Jíbaro, Kakataibo, Kakinte, Kandozi, Kapanawa, Kichwa, Kukama kukamiria, Madija, Maijɨki, Marinahua, Mashco Piro, Mastanahua, Matsés, Matsigenka, Muniche, Murui-‐Muinanɨ, Nahua, Nanti, Nomatsigenga, Ocaina, Omagua, Resígaro, Secoya, Sharanahua, Shawi, Shipibo-‐Konibo, Shiwilu, Tikuna, Urarina, Vacacocha, Wampis, Yagua, Yaminahua, Yanesha, and Yine.
Four are identified as being from the Andean region: Aymara, Jaqaru, Uro and Quechua, this latter noted as referring to “a broad and diverse set of Andean populations” with Quechua as their mother tongue. Of these, the Chopcca, Chankas, Huancas, Huaylas, Kanas, Q’ero and Cañaris peoples are specifically identified. Together, these peoples form the majority of Peru’s indigenous population.
Indigenous people and the census
A new Housing and Population Census was conducted in 2017 which included additional questions aimed at obtaining more information on ethnic variables. The results of this are expected in the second half of 2018. The data currently available therefore comes from the 2007 census. This census stated that 47% (13,263,759) of the population aged 3+ is indigenous, the criterion being language learned during childhood.
Seven percent (7%) of those who speak a native language or a language other than Spanish live in a situation of extreme poverty and 25.7% in a situation of moderate poverty (National Housing Survey, ENAHO 2016). Drawing on data from the 2007 census, UNICEF estimated that an average 42% of indigenous children and adolescents were living in extreme poverty and 36% in moderate poverty.
Access to land
The Peruvian state has guaranteed the native peoples their right to communal land ownership since 1920 but the 1993 Constitution removed the safeguards of immunity from seizure and inalienability.
61.8% of the peasant and native communities hold title to their land (2017) but only 83.1% of the titled peasant communities and 71.2% of the native communities have had their titles registered in the Public Registry (SUNARP). There is no information on indigenous ownership of individual plots or properties.
67.2% of indigenous children who speak a native language complete their primary education within the given timeframe (2016). 52% of indigenous adolescents who speak a native language complete their secondary education within the given timeframe.
Achievement of a satisfactory level of written understanding in their native language had doubled in 2014 among indigenous fourth grade primary school children in Andean areas and tripled in Amazonian bilingual schools, compared to 2012. Written understanding of Spanish among speakers of six of the indigenous languages had increased by 7% in the 2015 Student Census.
Transmissible diseases are the main cause of death and illness among Andean and Amazonian indigenous peoples, in particular acute respiratory infections (ARI) and acute diarrhoea, both of which have a serious impact in a context of prevalent malnutrition. Alongside this, however, chronic non-transmissible diseases are growing in importance such as diabetes, HIV/AIDS and pollution-related harm.
Photos by Pablo Lasansky and IWGIA