Endomembrane System By: Justin Laferte

this is an upclose simple diagram of the nucleus


  • the structure of the nucleus is surrounded by the nuclear envelope which acts as a cell membrane and maintains the shape. ( the nuclear envelope is made of a phospholipid bi layer
  • Nuclear pores are little holes in the nuclear envelope which allow for the flow of molecules out of the nucleus
  • in the center is a nucleolus (which contains all of the cells chromosomes and genetic information


  • control all cell activity
  • Store genetic information
  • send out information to the cell to make proteins

-All Eukaryotic organisms contain a nucleus. plants, animals, protists, and fungi contain a nucleus.

-The nucleus is not prolific. in the organisms that have a nucleus only have one nucleus in the center of the cell.

-The nucleus is associated with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy which is a result from a mutation in the inner nuclear membrane. The disease affects the muscles used for movement. (Cardiac and Skeletal)

the ribosome has a larger sub unit and and a smaller sub unit


  • Composed of RNA and Proteins
  • Made of two sub units. Named according to their ability of sedimentation on a special gel which the Sevdberg Unit.


  • Make proteins from all amino acids
  • The function of the ribosome in prokayotes differs from the function of Eukaryotes

-Ribosomes are in all of the cells of every organism

-Ribosomes are prolific because they are located floating around freely in the cytoplasm around the nucleus and attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. it is also in every organisms although the function in each changes.

- the Ribosome is associated with Treacher Collins Syndrome which is a disease that causes changes to the face and head. changes such as down-slanting eyes, notched lower eyelids, and under developed facial features. this disease is caused by a change in chromosome 5.

it is the one on the left...
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum


  • Made of folded up membranes like the membrane that surrounds the cell. it is folded up to get the most surface area out of it.
  • The membrane is made up of lipids like the outer membrane.
  • Ribosomes are bound onto the rough endoplasmic reticulum unlike the smooth Endoplasmic reticulum.


  • Help with the synthesis of complex proteins because of the ribosomes bound to its surface
  • Transports newly made proteins by having the proteins move through its membranes.

- The Rough ER is in every Animal cell, plant cell, fungi cell, and protist cell.

-The rough Endoplasmic Reticulum is not prolific because each cell only has one even though it is folded up into multiple layers

-the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum is assocaited with stress that is caused by starving glucose, and calcium homeostasis. This leads to misfolded proteins

it is the one on the right...
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum


  • The structure of the smooth Endoplasmic reticulum is similar to the rough endoplasmic reticulum as it is made of a folded up membrane, which is made of lipids.
  • The smooth ER does not have ribosomes bound to its surface like the rough ER


  • Important in protein synthesis
  • Helps transport proteins by having the newly made proteins go through its membrane like the rough ER.

-The smooth Endoplasmic reticulum like the Rough Endoplasmic reticulum is located in Animal cells, plants cell, fungi cells, and protist cells.

-All cells that have the smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum only have on so it is not prolific. It is prolific even though it is folded up into multiple parts.

-The smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum is associated with pathologic conditions that interfere with homeostasis leading to liver disease and type 2 diabetes.

it looks like Jabba the Hut
Golgi Apparatus


  • Made of flattened cisternae, or flattened membranous sacs
  • An individual stack can be referred to as a Dictyosome. In a normal cell they are usually more than 50 stacks in the golgi apparatus.


  • Synthesize proteins and package the protein for secretion uses. Given the title post office
  • create lysosomes
  • Involved in the sulfation process of certain molecules

-The Gogi apparatus are in protist cells, fungi cells, plant cells, and animal cells.

-The Golgi apparatus is prolific because some Eukaryotic cells contain more than one, but most Eukaryotic cells only contain one Golgi Apparatus

- Achondrogenesis type 1A is a disease associated with the Golgi Apparatus. It is caused by a defect in the microtubules of the Golgi apparatus.

POWERHOUSE OF THE CELL!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


  • The mitochondria is made of two membranes, the outer membrane the surrounds it and the inner membrane on the inside of the organelle.
  • The inner membrane folds in to form the matrix inside. the layered structures are called cristae.


  • Produce ATP for the cell to use to perform tasks that the cell needs to do. the organelle is sent simple molecules it and it charges. ATP is made when these combine with oxygen.
  • Help contain a correct amount of calcium ions inside the cell
  • Mitochondria in liver cells detoxify ammonia

-Mitochondria are located in Protist cells, Fungi cells, Plant cells, and Animal cells.

-The mitochondria is prolific because the cells that contain mitochondria contain multiple of them to produce ATP

-The mitochondria is associated with Mitochondrial myopathies, groups of neuromuscular diseases. These neuromuscular diseases are caused by damage to the mitochondria. these diseases specifically target the mitochondria. These diseases are usually muscle diseases.



  • Contains an outer semi peremeable membrane, an intermembrane space, and then the inner membrane.
  • An inner Thylakoid system is a collection of membranous sacs. the chlorophyll is located in the Thylakoid which is where photosynthesis occurs.


  • Participate in the cells immune repsonse
  • Make food by the process of photosynthesis!!!!!!!
  • The site of the calvin cycle reactions (DARK REACTIONS!!!!!)

-Chloroplasts are only located in plant cells and some protists but a very small amount of protists.

-chloroplasts are prolific in plant cells because plant cells would not be able to operate well with only one chloroplast so plant cells have multiple to operate.

-When Chloroplasts mutate it can lead to nutrient deficiencies. An example is iron (Fe).

like some animals prokaryotic cells have somewhat of a tail with its flagella.


  • Flagellum ( flagella) is a hair like structure that somewhat differs in eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells.
  • In a Eukaryotic cell it is surronded the extended cell membrane but most of it is a filament called Axoneme
  • In prokaryotic cells it is still a hair like structure and very similar but there is only one in the cell


  • The main function of Flagella is motility for most of the cells it is in.
  • The flagella is often also used as a sensory organelle. It can be used as a sensor for chemicals located outside the cell, temperatures, and to locate other cells around the cell.

-Flagellum is found in all protist, bacterial, animal, plant, and fungi cells although them different in structures.

-The flagellum is prolific in eukaryotic cells because they have many bound to them to preform their functions. in prokaryotic cells, they only have one flagella.

-Flagellum is associated with Legionellosis and legionnaire's disease which is the more severe one of the two. it is caused by the bacteria pneumophila.

it looks like finding nemo :)


  • Cilia are very microscopic structures that extend from the membrane. the cilia has an outer membrane.
  • Cilia has a basal body that is beneath the surface of the membrane.
  • Inside the membrane there are several different microtubules surrounding one central microtubule
  • Between 1 and 10 micrometers long


  • cilia play an important role a part of the cell cycle
  • Help the cell with replication.
  • Play vital role in the development of our human cells, and other organisms cells.

-Cilia is found in all protist, bacterial, animal, plant, and fungi cells although them different in structures.

-The cilia is prolific in eukaryotic cells because many are bound to the surface to preform their functions.

- Cilia is very widespread in the human body. One disease associated with cilia is Primary ciliary dyskinesia. This disease is caused by defects in your primary cilia so they are no longer moitle.

this is a lysosome with its single membrane wall


  • Small, membrane- bound sacs filled with hydrolytic enzymes
  • contain a membrane that prevents the release of digestive enzymes
  • Formed from endosomes


  • Intracellular digestion
  • Removal of dead cells. Lysosomes can help with the removal of dead cells such as white blood cells
  • Metamorphosis. when a frogs tail disappears, that is due to lysosomes.
  • Aid in protein synthesis. aid in protein synthesis of some birds in the liver and pancreas
  • Aid in fertilization. Sperms head secrete some lyosomal enzymes which help in the penetration of sperm into vitelline layer of ovum
  • Osteogenesis (formation of bone cells)

-Lysosomes are only located in animal and plant cells, and not located in protists or fungi cells.

-Yes, lysosomes are prolific in plant and animal cells because they are used for intercellular digestion

-Lysosomes are associated with Pompe disease which is a build up of glycogen molecules in the body. because glycogen builds up so much this makes it so some organs can not function properly because the cell organelles are not working properly.

this is the process of phagocytosis in an amoeba cell that a food vacuole completes
Food vacuole


  • A membrane bound sac
  • They are formed when food comes into the cell. The cell membrane bends inward when food comes into the cell. the membrane continues to stretch inward until the food is completely inside the cell. When the membrane pinches off it forms the vacuole. (Phagocytosis)


  • The main function of the food vacuole is digesting all of the food the comes into the cell. This process is called Phagocytosis.

-Vacuoles can be in plant and animal cells, but vacuoles in plant cells are more common and often larger and can take up almost 50% percent of the room inside the cell sometimes.

-Food vacuoles are prolific because many different ones can form when the membrane pinches when the food molecules are fully into the cell.

-The food vacuole is associated with Danons disease which is a mutation in the LAMP 2 Gene. The number of vacuoles can now increase substantially now.

the central vacuole takes up almost all of inside the cell
Central Vacuole


  • A large sac in the cell that takes up the most space out of all the organelles.
  • It is surrounded by a membrane that doesn't let the material and waste come out.


  • The main function of the central vacuole is to take in waste and other materials that are supposed to be secreted by the cell.
  • The central vacuole can also help maintain the proper pressure of what the pressure inside the cell should be.

-The Central Vacuole is only located in plant cells and no other types of cells.

-The central Vacuole is prolific because each plant cell will only contain one central vacuole

-Central vacuole are not associated with diseases because they have special strategies they use to fight diseases that can happen.


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