Throughout la historia de Espana, there have been many different forms of government, various rulers, and wars for varying reasons. One of the only cosa the only thing remained consistent for most of the years fue that it wasn't very peaceful.
Believe it or not, Spain was once a prosperous place that many people wanted vivir in. The area of Spain was sort of a pit stop for travelers. People that stopped in Spain could get food, supplies, and rest. Spain's ability to meet the needs of people made it an area that many people wanted to own. This led to unrest in that area.
The Celtas and The Iberos
The primero group of people to conquer Spain were the Celtas. The Celtas were a simple group and conquering Spain did not take much force because there was really nothing there to take over. With the Celtas in power, Spain turned into a peaceful area of comercio. Competition for the land soon came with the Iberos. The Iberos were another simple group of people that deseo to inhabit Spain, so instead of fighting, the two nations combino into one, the Celtiberos.
Violencia con the romans
The next groupo to take over Espana was the Romans. The Holy Roman Empire, at that time, had one of the most powerful military forces, so powerful that it did not take much to take Spain from the Celtiberos. Though the Romans goberieron with an iron fist, complications due to the location of Spain came up. With Italy being almost 900 miles away from Spain, it was difficult controlar the large amount of land so, the Romans squandered the Spain's resources and killed many gente. The soldiers and rulers left nothing behind but influence.
These barbaric people were the next rulers of Spain. There not much to tell about this group except the fact that they caused extreme damage and destruction of Spain's land and people, burning and plundering all they could.
In 711 AD a group of Muslims from North Africa used Spain to escape religious persecution. They defeated the Visigoths easily and conquered the entire peninsula.
When the Muslims came to Spain there fue instantly conflict. The Christians of that area did not want any other religion, beside their own, vivir in Spain. The Christians lucharon the other religion and tildaron de them as devil worshippers. Many Muslims ended up "converting", only to continue to practice their own religion in secret.
With all of Spain against them, the Moors decidieron they necesitaron to make themselves harder to defeat. They dividieron up their kingdoms into smaller sections so they could have as much control over the land as possible. This strategy worked until the defeat of the Moorish king, Granada in 1493.
The spanish INQUISITION
After the death of Granada, all Moros were imponieron by Queen Isabel and King Fernando to convert to Christianity or leave. Many people said they convertieron but still practicaron their own religion behind the government's behind the government's back. When the government finally found out about this, the pope allowed the extreme torture and execution of Muslims, so that they would be devout Christians.
Carlos I fue the son of Juana La Loca and Felipe. He was born Charles V but, he cambaron his name so that he could be the first Carlos of Spain. Under his rule, Spain prospero in trade and in military. Carlos l took the funds made from the newfound prosperity and put it to the cause of defending Christianity. Spain soon became one of the strongest defenders of Christianity during the Protestant Reformation. When Carlos l muerto, he paso his legacy down to his son, Felipe.
The son of Carlos I, Felipe ll, continued luchar against the Protestant Reformation. In order to create a stronger Catholic alliance, Felipe marries Mary Tudor of England. Unfortunately for Felipe, the marriage did not produce a male heir to the throne and Protestant queen, Elizabeth l came into power. The continued fight about religion resulted in the defeat of Spain's "invincible" army by England.
La leyenda negra
During the dispute between England and Spain, Portugal was annexed into Spain. As a way of getting back at Spain, England created propaganda telling how bad Spain was and how no one should ever travel there. The propaganda was presented in gruesome posters and paintings showing the King of Spain eating children with human carcasses on the ground. This caused conditions between Spain and England to worsen.
Siglo de ORO
After the deaths of Felipe ll and lll, Felipe VI comes to power. Lucky for him, he ruled over the most prosperous and peaceful years of Spain, the Golden Ages. During this period there is a burst of new literature, drama, and other forms of art. People start forgetting about the Black Legend and move to Spain for economics, wealth, and art.
The war of SPANISH SUCCESSION
The final heir despues de Felipe VI was Carlos II. Carlos had mental problems which caused him to never marry and to never have any children. With no heir to the throne, there was chaos. Royal families were turned against each other, battling to see who would become ruler. The war comes to an end in 1713, leaving Felipe V, of the Bourbon family, in charge.
The Bourbons were efficient rulers but, they did not care about anything or anyone outside the royal court. During this time Felipe V attempted to convert Spain to a more modern state because of the enlightenment. After Felipe V, Carlos IV came into power. He was completely unqualified and failed as a leader.
War of Spanish Independence
In 1808, the Rebellion of the 2nd of May took place, symbolizing the start of a new war, the War of Spanish Independance. This was resulted in the current king, Joseph Bonaparte, to be thrown out of power. A new constitution was signed in 1812, declaring a parliamentary monarchy.
A new kind of ruler
Fernando VII is the new ruler, ruling with a Totalitarian government. This puts him in a bad relationship with the liberals because they want to expand on the Constitution of 1812. When Fernando died in 1833, leaving only his daughter Isabel in line for the throne, people were confused about the woman ruler. Isabel being ruler divided the country. Liberals fought with other people who wanted Fernando's brother to take the throne. Isabel ruled through the opposition of many, until in 1868, the "Glorious Revolution" occurred. This was the night when a few Carlists killed 8 of her guards and proceeded to behead the queen in her bedroom.
A new Government?
In 1873, Spain tried out a republic government. This government worked so well that it lasted an entire year.
fixing the nation
The Bourbons are put back in power in 1875, with Alfonso XII. Shortly after his death in 1885 Alfonso XIII is born. His mother oversaw the government until the young king was ready to rule. When Alfonso XIII started to take charge and did not care for anything outside of the royal court, Spain's economy and overall wellness started to go down the drain. Alfonso XII was unable to handle the country so, he put a military general in charge of creating a dictatorship. This form of government was also unable to solve the nation's issues, so Spain then switched back to a republic. The new republic constitution gave women new freedoms, separate church from state, and installed public escuelas.
the republic of Espana
The newly installed republic government created even bigger divides among people. Military, the upper class, and the church think that things are being altered too quickly and that the government needed to slow down. Communists and Socialists thought the exact opposite.
In 1936, general Francisco Franco begins a military revolt that marks the start of Spain's Civil War. Franco is supported by many powerful people at the time, including Hitler(Germany) and Mussolini(Italy). Because the Republican forces did not receive much help at all, the war only lasted 3 years, resulting in Franco winning.
The rule of General Franco
General Franco's victory in the Civil War empezo his 36 year period as dictator. He restricted the rights of women, religions besides Christianity, and other minorities. No news was allowed to be broadcasted in Spain, unless it was approved by the dictator. All artists, scientists, and basically everyone who could think for themselves was exiled from Spain. Franco's successor was assassinated and Alfonso XIII was chosen. When Franco died in 1975, Juan Carlos I took over.
When Juan Carlos I came into power, he started a new government in Spain, a Democracy. With Adolfo Suarez chosen as the first Prime Minister, the period known as the Transition begins. The first election in a long time was held in 1978 and in the 80's, Spain joins NATO. Spain's economy continues to prosper and its influence in the world increases. In 2004 after a tragic terrorist attack, Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero is elected as Prime Minister. He proved to be a good leader because he completed most of the things he promised to do such as, withdrawing Spanish military from the U.S. and Iraq war and working with other countries to legalize same-sex marriage. Overall, the Transition led Spain to a more modern and stable age.