Process of Photosynthesis The complete production by: Bryan Mensen

Photosynthesis is the process of plants making sugar and oxygen out of water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight. This process takes place within the thylakoid. Thylakoids are inside of a chloroplast within a plant cell.

This is a complex process with two large and complicated steps. Light independent and light dependent stages are these steps.

Photosynthesis is recorded as a simple equation. 6CO2 + 6H2O --> C6H12O6 + 6O2 This process can be said as, six carbon dioxide plus six water yields glucose plus six oxygen two .

C4 plants

C4 plants are plants with a significant structure modifications in an arrangement of cells in their leaves. Most of the time, C4 plants keep their stroma closed during hot days, while four carbon compounds are transferred to special cells where CO2 enters the Calvin cycle. While minimizing water loss this allows significant carbon dioxide intake.

CAM Plants

Cam plants are remarkable plants that have an ability to keep their stroma closed during the day and open it during the night time to take in carbon dioxide minimizing water loss. Most crassulacean acid metabolism ( CAM) plants live in marshes, deserts, and other harsh environments. These plants take in carbon dioxide at night while it is cool and humid. They then move the carbon dioxide to the Calvin Cycle. This allows sufficient carbon dioxide intake, while simultaneously minimizing water loss.

Light dependent reaction

This is the light dependent reaction. This is also known as the electron transport. This process takes place within and on the outside of a thylakoid. When light strikes photosystem 2 it excites an electron causing it to produce energy. This light also causes a water molecule to split within the thylakoid. The electron of H+ then moves through the process. they then move to photosystem 1 and repeat the process with light, but this time it doesn't split a water molecule. This just re-excites an electron to move again to the ferrodoxin. The electron that moves is soon replaced by another electron from photosystem 2 again. The first electron then is transfered from the ferrodoxin after changing an NAPD+ into NADPH then it goes to the stage of chemiosmosis where the electron molecule changes an ADP molecule into an ATP molecule. This process is then over and changes to the light independent cycle.

Light independent reaction

This stage is known as the Calvin Cycle. In the Calvin Cycle the plant changes the carbon dioxide and rubilose biphosphate into glucose molecules. Carbon fixation is the first step in this process where the carbon dioxide molecules mix with 5 carbon compounds to create twelve 3-carbon molecules(3PGA). The power/energy from the NADPH and the ATP then is transferred to the 3PGA and forms a high energy molecule of G3P The NADPH then turns back into NADP+ and the ATP back into ADP. Two of the G3P molecule then leave the cycle to be used to make glucose. Rubisco mixes with the remaining G3P and form 1, 5-biphoshpates. these molecules then mix with the carbon, restarting the cycle.


Chlorophyll is the primary pigment in plants; it is a chlorin that absorbs yellow and blue wavelengths of light while reflecting green. Carotenoids are red, orange, or yellow tetraterpenoids.

The green energy waves are absorbed by the plant then is reflected back out. The major object within a chloroplast that reflects the light back is chlorophyll. There are many different types of chlorophyll that reflect light back. The most common of the chlorophylls are chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. The chlorophylls are able to absorb and reflect light because of there structures. Chlorophyll molecules can absorb light at unique areas of the visible spectrum.

The chlorophylls absorb a blue-violet light that then projects a green light back. This shows why the plants we see appear green. The chlorophyll can break down in some leaves of trees causing the yellow, orange, and red to appear.

Most photosynthetic organisms contain extra types of pigments to trap in more light energy from the visible spectrum. These are usually carotenoids which absorb light that is mainly in the blue-green region, while reflecting back yellow, orange, and red. Chlorophylls are mosy often found in leaves. This shows in this part of the United States we have different colors of leaves in the fall season. When trees loose there ;leaves in the winter the chlorophyll molecules break down revealing different pigment colors.

This function of color is called the electromagnetic spectrum. Pigments are substances that absorb visible light. Different pigments absorb different wavelengths of lights. Wavelengths that are not absorbed are reflected or transmitted.

So on conclusion Photosynthesis is really important.

Thank You.

I hope you enjoyed this presentation.


Created with images by Couleur - "rose flower blossom"

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