INTERDEPENDENCE revisited

biological community

a biological community, in biology, is an interacting group of various species in a common location

an example would be a forest of trees and undergrowth plants, inhabited by animals and rooted in soil containing bacteria and fungi, constitutes a biological community

organism

an individual animal, plant, or single-celled life form

types of organisms

there are four types of organisms in a biological community

producers, consumers, scavengers, and decomposers

producers

an organism that serves as a source of food for other organisms in a food chain

producers include green plants, which produce food through photosynthesis, and certain bacteria that are capable of converting inorganic substances into food through chemosynthesis

consumers

an organism that feeds on other organisms in a food chain

herbivores that feed on green plants in a food chain are called primary consumers, carnivores that feed on herbivores are secondary consumers, and carnivores that feed on other carnivores are called , tertiary consumers

consumers can also be classified by what they eat, such as herbivores just eat plants, carnivores just eat meat, and omnivores eat plants and other animals

scavengers

an animal that feeds on dead organisms, especially a carnivorous animal that eats dead animals rather than or in addition to hunting live prey

vultures, hyenas, possum, raccoons, and wolves are scavengers

decomposers

when plants and animals die, they become food for decomposers like bacteria, fungi and earthworms

decomposers or saprotrophs recycle dead plants and animals into chemical nutrients like carbon and nitrogen that are released back into the soil, air and water

factors that affect populations of organisms

the environment limits population growth by changing birth and death rates

the factors affecting population size and growth include biotic factors such as food, disease, competitors, and predators and abiotic factors such as rainfall, floods, and temperature

ecosystem

a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment

it includes the biotic and abiotic factors

biotic and abiotic factors

biotic factors are all of the living things in an ecosystem and abiotic factors are all of the non-living things in an ecosystem

both biotic and abiotic factors are related to each other in an ecosystem, and if one factor is changed or removed, it can affect the entire ecosystem

abiotic factors are especially important because they directly affect how organisms survive

energy flow in an ecosystem

the energy in most ecosystems flows through the food chain

in ecosystems, the energy flow starts in green plants that harvest some of the sun’s energy, the plants are then consumed by animals, bacteria and other creatures, which are themselves eaten by other creatures

at each step in the food chain, energy is lost as heat

the low rate of energy transfer between levels makes decomposers generally more important than producers in terms of energy flow

decomposers process large amounts of organic material and return nutrients to the ecosystem in inorganic form, which are then taken up again by primary producers

biomes

biomes are very large ecological areas on the earth's surface, with fauna and flora (animals and plants) adapting to their environment

biomes are often defined by abiotic factors such as climate, relief, geology, soils and vegetation

a biome is not an ecosystem, although in a way it can look like a massive ecosystem

world's major land biomes

desert, tundra, coniferous forest (taiga), temperate deciduous forest, rainforest, and grassland (temperate and savanna)

desert

arid land with usually sparse vegetation, land having a very warm climate and receiving less than 25 centimeters (10 inches) of sporadic rainfall annually

tundra

a vast, flat, treeless Arctic region in which the subsoil is permanently frozen

coniferous forest (taiga)

taiga also known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches

temperate deciduous forest

temperate deciduous forests are dominated by trees that lose their leaves each year, and they are found in areas with warm, moist summers and mild winters

rainforest

rainforests receive at least 80 inches (200 cm) of rain per year

rainforests have a canopy, which is the layer of branches and leaves formed by closely spaced rainforest trees some 30 meters (100 feet) off the ground, and a large proportion of the plants and animals in the rainforest live in the canopy

grassland

an area characterized by coarse grasses and scattered tree growth

Created By
Athanasios Bayiates
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Credits:

Created with images by JerzyGorecki - "aphids insects ants" • mypubliclands - "Cascade-Siskiyou NM" • raedon - "macro shrub ornamental shrubs" • FotoshopTofs - "phytoplankton plankton living organism" • jarekgrafik - "drosera flowers nature" • Bluesnap - "zebra game animals" • kasabubu - "turkey vulture raptor scavengers" • Meditations - "age bacteria bio" • PublicDomainPictures - "animal aquarium creature" • SCA_Deutschland - "Ein früher Morgen im Wald" • mypubliclands - "#conservationlands15 Social Media Takeover, Sept 15th, Top 15 Facts: Wild Rogue" • Mzlle - "forest landscape sun" • Lawrie Cate - "Biome" • acme - "IXW_6736" • Hans - "monument valley kayenta arizona" • tpsdave - "alaska wilderness tundra" • rgerber - "winter forest snow" • Nicholas_T - "Deep Woods" • Pexels - "fog forest mist" • mckaysavage - "South Africa - Rustenburg - 02 - pretty sky"

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