India & China By: nate holcombe and Kelsey cherry

Religion

India: Hinduism

  • Central Beliefs

Brahma-- supreme being and creator of the universe

The universe recreates itself endlessly

Karma-- actions lead to their fate in the future

Reincarnation-- you are reborn as a different person

Dharma-- order and customs that make life and the universe possible.

China: Buddhism

  • Central Beliefs

The Three Trainings:

  • Sila- Good conduct and morality, which are based on the principal that everyone is equal, and the Golden Rule-- treat others how you want to be treated.
  • Samadhi- Meditation and mental development.
  • Panna- Wisdom and enlightenment.

The Four Noble Truths:

  • Dukkha- Suffering is real.
  • Samudaya- Suffering has a cause.
  • Nirhodha- Suffering has an end.
  • Magga- In order to end suffering, follow the Eightfold Path.

The Five Precepts:

  • Do not kill.
  • Do not steal.
  • Do not lie.
  • Do not misuse sex.
  • Do not consume alcohol and other drugs.

The Eightfold Path:

  • Right Vision- View of reality
  • Right Attitude
  • Right Speech- No harmful language
  • Right Action- Follow the Five Precepts
  • Right Livelihood- Take care of yourself without harming others
  • Right Effort- Promote good thoughts, get rid of evil thoughts
  • Right Mindfulness- Be aware of your body, mind, and feelings
  • Right Meditation

Language

India:

  • Spoken Language: Hindi and English
  • Written Language: Hindi and English

The Hindi language first originated from Vedic Sanskrit. Then came the Classical Sansktrit--which was used by upper-class citizens. It then turned into Prakrit and Pali, then to Apbrunsh, Khari Boli and then it made its way to Hindustani which was a mix of Hindi and Urdu. It has now separated into Hindi and Urdu, and now a majority of Indians speak Hindi.

China:

  • Spoken Language: Mandarin, spoken by 1.3 billion people, and Cantonese, spoken by 90 million people
  • Written Language: Chinese

China's writing system was first seen during the Shang dynasty. They write on tortoise shells and cattle bones used for divination

Science

India:

  • Algebra, Trigonometry, Geometry and Calculus
  • The first of medicine and Surgery was performed in India
  • The ruler

China:

  • Compass
  • Gunpowder
  • Crossbow
  • Fans
  • Paper making and Printing

Social

Caste System: A caste system is a class structure that is determined by birth.

Poor = Poor. Rich = Rich.

India:

  • Main Beliefs of the Caste System:

1. Groups are assigned by birth not by personality.

2. The Hindu conception of the social order is that people are different.

3. People fit will into different aspects of society.

  • Women: The women in higher classes were able to enjoy more education and more desired privileges, however the common woman suffered deprivation and hurdles.
  • Family versus the Individual: Family is more important than individuals. The individual is nothing unless he/she is a part of a family.
  • Social Mobility: The ability to move social levels is entirely dependable on what society you are in. In a closed society it is nearly impossible to go from one rank to another. However, in an open society it is actually highly common to move social levels.

China:

  • Confucianism: Confucianism originated from China from Confucius. After his death, his disciples spread his teachings throughout china. Confucianism was mainly concerned with ethical principles and does not address many traditional beliefs.

Main Beliefs:

1. Treat others how you want to be treated.

2. Behave as you should in whatever role you have in society.

3. Heaven would choose a person to rule.

Treatment of Women:

  • Ancient: Women in China generally had less power than men. Women did have leadership within the family, but not anywhere else.
  • Family versus the Individual: Family has been a key component within Chinese society, and still is.
  • Social Mobility: Social mobility is the movement of individuals, families, households, or other categories of people within or between social strata in a society.

Monsoons and Rivers

Monsoons in India:

There is a special season called monsoon season where monsoons occur, which happen from July to September. India makes use of the monsoon by using it to fill up aquifers, water rice and tea, keeping cows well-fed, which makes India the largest milk producer in the world. India also gets most of their energy from hydro power plants, which attains water from the monsoons.

Rivers in China:

  • Yellow River: The yellow river is the second largest river in China and is known as the mother river. The Yellow River is known by all of the Chinese people as China's Cradle and the spiritual home of the Chinese. The yellow river stands for a kind of culture and civilization. The Yellow River has played an integral part in the development of civilization. The Yellow River is important because it offers water in the northern region of China, which is a very dry region. The river is an essential part for agriculture and economy in northern China, and people also use the river for hydroelectric power by constructing several dams on the river.
  • Yangtze River: The Yangtze River provides enough irrigation water to the farmlands that helps bring harvest for the people there. This affected the people then because they were able to stop being nomadic and settle down in a place with a water supply that could help them farm. The Yangtze river is the longest river in China and third longest in the world. They Yangtze River Basin is where a majority of where grain is produced, and the amount of grain covers half of the entire country. On the Yangtze river basin, it produces mostly rice, but it also produces cotton, wheat, barely, corn and beans as well. A large amount of cities along the river include Shanghai, Nanjing, Wuhan and Chongqing rely on the grain it produces.

Colonial Past

India:

Britain was the country to colonize and control India. They arrived in 1601 when the British looked toward the east, and India provided a great deal of wealth for Britain.

The British East India Company had control of the most favorable trade routes to the region so Britain gave the company governing power over India and helped supply troops and resources.

The British first took control of India in 1858 when the British Raj started. They controlled for 99 years. The British developed new industries as well as railroads and telephone lines.

While these developments made India more productive and progressive, it had interrupted India's economy and traditional culture. The British had also put themselves at a higher social rank and the Indians lower-class citizens.

On June 15, 1947, the British House of Commons passed the Indian Independence Act, which divided India into two dominions to be granted their independence by August 15, 2917

China:

Great Britain had taken Hong Kong from China after winning the first Opium War and took southern Kowloon shortly after winning the second Opium War. Portugal had claimed the Macau region and France took over the northern Vietnam region by winning the Sino-French war. China was officially taken control of in 1939. It was controlled because a number of different countries had won wars against them.

China gained its independence on October 1, 1949 by revolution against the communists. Mao Ze Dong was a pivotal figure in helping China gain their independence.

China and India Today

Population:

India: 1,332,713,559 people as of 2016.

China: 1,382,323,332 people as of 2016.

GDP:

India: 2073.54 (7)

China: Second largest GDP which accounts for 15% of the worldly GDP.

Government:

India: Democratic Republic. The leader is Narendra Modi. He is the 15th Prime Minister of India. He has been in office since May 26, 2014.

China: China's form of government is a communist state known as the people's republic. The Chinese Communist Party is the leading political party of China.

Women

India: Women today have been receiving higher education than the women in the past. They are currently trying to make the social status of women more desirable and ultimately better than it was in the past.

China: Even now, women still do not have as many opportunities as men-- but they no longer have to endure the hardships of foot-binding. Women still experience social limitations and social pressures.

Current Caste System in India:

The Caste System in current Indian Society has been illegal. It is illegal to discriminate against others based on a caste system, but the system is determined by birth. This determines which a person's future line of work will be.

Current Role of Confucianism in China:

To this day many students all around China are still being taught Confucianism.

Widespread Challenge in India:

India is having a lot of problems when it comes to diseases. In fact, over half of all deaths that happen in India are caused by diseased, such as cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory problems. These life-threatening diseases has affected 63 million Indians in 2012.

One Child Policy in China:

China's One Child Policy was set up in 1979 and it was a policy where parents were not allowed to have more than one child, and this policy was set up to reduce the population growth rate in China since China has an enormously large population. This population has significantly reduced the fertility rate of women as before the policy, there were about 6 births per woman. Now, the policy has been removed in 2016, and now China has a Two Child Policy, with similar effects.

Widespread Challenge in China:

Today, China is facing major problems with air pollution. So far, a total of 70 cities have warned the public about the alarming levels of pollution in the areas. The World Health Organization measures air quality by the amount of small particles in in, known as PM2.5. Small particles of this size are easily breathed in and can damage the lungs. The poor air quality has led to the government closing down factories, some power plants and schools.

"In the long run, the pollution problem can only be eased by adjusting the country's industrial structure, or accelerating the upgrading of [polluting] industries, so as to cut down the emission sources of pollutants."

Credits:

Created with images by Swami Stream - "Ganesha 5"

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