Manifest Destiny Pages 345-367

Rivalry in the Northwest

  • The Oregon Country was a huge area located north of California, between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
  • In the early 1800's, four nations claimed the vast, rugged land known as te Oregon Country.

Adams-Onis Treaty

  • In 1819 Secretary of State John Quincy Adams got Spain to approve the Adams-Onis Treaty.
  • In 1824 Russia also gave up its claim to the land south of Alaska.

Mountain Men in Oregon

  • Fur traders had been the first Americas to take up the challenge of living in the Oregon Country.
  • In 1808 Astor organized the American Fur Company.
What did America gain from the Adams-Onis Treaty?
Many Americans wanted control of Oregon in order to gain access to the Pacific Ocean.

Oregon and Manifest Destiny-Marcus and Narcissa Whitman

  • Dr. Marcus Whitman and his wife, Narcissa, were missionaries who went to Oregon in 1836 and built a mission among the Cayuse people near the present site of Walla Walla, Washington.
  • Native Americans hand never been exposed to measles.

Along the Oregon Trail

  • The Whitman massacre was a shocking even, but it did little to stop the flood of pioneers on their way to Oregon.
  • Drawn by reports of fertile Oregon land, and driven by economic hard times in the East, many Americans took to trail.

America Seeks Its Manifest Destiny

  • Since colonial times, many Americans had believed their nation's mission should be to serve as a model of freedom and democracy.
  • In 1819 John Quincy Adams expressed what many Americans were thinking when he said expansion to the Pacific was as certain as the Mississippi River flowing to the sea.
  • In the 1840's, New York newspaper editor John O'Sullivan expressed in more specific words the idea of a national mission.

"Fifty-four Fort or Fight"

  • Many Americans wanted the United States to take over all of Oregon.
  • In the 1844 presidential election, James K. Polk, the Democratic nominee, supported this desire.
  • In 1846 British and Oregon compromise.
How did Polk's views differ from Clay's in the 1844 election
Many Americans wanted the United States to take over all of Oregon.

Lesson 2

How did Florida become a state?
Spain transferred Florida to the United States and it became an American Territory.

Florida

  • Spain transferred Florida to the United States on July 17, 1821.
  • Tallahassee became the territorial capital in 1824.
  • Fewer than 8,000 people lived in the territory, including enslaved people.

The Territory Grows

  • In 1837 the census for the territory of Florida reported that 48,000 people lived there.
  • Florida's desire to enter the Union as a slave state caused some difficulty.

Statehood for Florida

  • Iowa finally emerged as a free state candidate. With the question of slavery removed, President John Tyler signed the Florida statehood bill.
What caused the population of Florida to grow.
Iowa emerged with Florida.

Texas

  • In 1821 Mexico won independence from Spain.
  • At the time, the non-Native American population of Texas was about 3,000.
  • Many Americans also had enslaved African Americans, which Mexico threatened to ban.

Alamo

  • The Texans had only about 180 soldiers to take on Santa Anna's army of several thousand.
  • For 13 long days, through several attacks, the defenders of the Alamo kept Santa Anna's army at bay with rifle fire.
  • The Mexican army was too large to hold back.

Texas Declares Its Independence

  • During the siege at the Alamo, Texan leaders met at the town of Washington-on-the-Brazos.
  • Texan leaders set up a temporary government.

The Lone Star Republic

  • In September 1836, Texas elected Sam Houston as their president.
  • Andres Jackson, however, refused their request to take control over Texas.

Texas Becomes a State

  • Many Texans wanted to join the United States.
  • Southerners favored Texas annexation, but Northerners opposed admitting another slave state to the Union.
Why did it take a long time for the United States to annex Texas?
Because Texas was a slave state.

Lesson 3

How did the Santa Fe Trail benefit from the New Mexico Territory?
It was a big improvement over the trails that existed in the dry and rugged area at that time.

The New Mexico Territory

  • In the early 1800's, the land called New Mexico was a vast region between the Texas and California territories.
  • Mexico, including New Mexico, won its independence from Spain in 1821.
  • William Becknell, the first American trader to reach Santa Fe, arrived in 1821.
How did William Becknell influence the American settlement of New Mexico?
He was the first American trader to reach Santa Fe.

California's Spanish Culture

  • Spanish explorers and missionaries from Mexico settled California in the 1700's.
  • The missions aimed to convert Native Americans to Christianity and the Spanish way of life.

Conflict Begins

  • President James K. Polk was determined to get the California and New Mexico territories from Mexico.
  • To bring pressure, Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to lead U.S forces into the disputed area on the Rio Grande.
  • On May 13, Congress passed a declaration of war against Mexico.

A War Plan

  • Polk planned to defeat Mexico by accomplishing three goals.
  • By 1847, Zachary Taylor had accomplished the first goal.

California Uprising

  • American settlers in northern California had begun an uprising.
  • On June 14, 1846, the Americans declared California's independence.

Peace Terms

  • Defeated on February 2, 1848, Mexico's leaders signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
  • The Unite States paid Mexico $15 million and assumed $3.25 million in debts Mexico owed American citizens.
What did America gain from the Mexican War?
They gained two new states from the Mexican Territories.

Lesson 4

How did the discovery of gold help California?
People from all over the world traveled to California in search of riches.

California Gold Rush

  • Those who arrived in 1849 were called forty-niners.
  • Americans made up about 80 percent of the forty-niners.

The Californios

  • The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war with Mexico and made Californios--Mexicans living in California--citizens of the United States.

The Life of a Forty-Niner

  • As people rushed to a new area to look for gold, they built new communities.
  • Most forty-niners had no experience in mining.

Gold Rush Society

  • Mining camps contained men of all backgrounds but few women.

Economic and Political Progress

  • In 1849, Californians applied for statehood and wrote a constitution.
How did the California Gold Rush lead to the expansion of cities?
Everyone that came to California for the Gold Rush didn't want to leave because if they missed something important they would have to travel all the way back up to California.

A Religious Refuge in Utah

  • While the Gold Rush was transforming California, change was also taking place in nearby Urah

The Mormons Move On

  • The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was among a number of religious movements that sprang up during the religious awakenings of the 1830's and 1840's.
  • Smith published The Book of Mormon that year, announcing that is was a translation of words written on golden plates that he had received from an angel.
  • Smith formed a community in New York, but neighbors disapproved of the Mormons' religion and forced them to leave.

A Haven in the Desert

  • The Mormon migration began in 1846.
  • In 1847 the Mormons finally reached the Great Salt Lake.
  • Om 1848 the United States acquired the Salt Lake area from Mexico after the Mexican War.
Why did the Mormons have to keep moving from one place to another?
Because people did not believe in their religion.

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