Art and Design Theory. By jess goodwin

Bauhaus

Bauhaus had a significant influence on the design industry, many companies have an influence of this in their products today, for example IKEA are one of the biggest homeware and furnishing companies in the world and they have taken a massive influence from bauhaus. Most of the furniture at IKEA have a simplistic design, the chairs usually are very “modernised” and have a compilation circular shapes and simple colours and textures. The patterns IKEA use are normally a gathering of geometric shapes like triangles or squares. Bauhaus was a school built during world war 1 in Berlin. It was a design school that combined the classic fine art with the design world, it was founded by a man named Walter Gropius. The subjects the school focused on most was things like architecture, graphic design and, typography. The Bauhaus philosophy focuses on functionality. As a matter of fact, the phrase that is most commonly used within the Bauhaus philosophy was form follows function. It also considers using primary colours the most and using powerful typography is hugely important in the design industry.

Before Bauhaus came about, everything in the design industry was very complex or in my opinion old fashioned. If you look around a house of an elderly person compared to a young adult with an apartment you can see that the aesthetic of the two houses are completely different. In the elderly person’s house there would most likely be cabinets made with dark wood and intricate curves and grooves in the wood and glass. The glass window would most likely have a pattern on it which is again intricate detailing and sharp curves. if you were to look at a modern home, you can tell it has been influenced by Bauhaus in a significant way. For example storage units these days are almost all square, there are no detailing or curved details on the wood or material used, and 100% of the time they are just pure geometric squares or rectangles

Pop Art

Pop culture was a modern phenomenon that changed the world of art forever. It began in the 1950s and is still carried around in 2016. It was based from american or western culture and was aimed at young people to slide away from the norm but became mainstream in all of its glory. Pop culture was associated with the lower class as opposed to “official culture”. People like andy Warhol decided to branch away from the idea of realism in art and would create things that weren’t neccarserily Mona Lisa style. Pop culture is viewed as being trivial and it was harder to get this type of art into the mainstream. It was under heavy criticism from people because in that day and age it wasn’t okay to do art that would go against the mainstream. Pop culture was also known as corrupt. Andy Warhol in particular had some of the most iconic pop art pieces in the world, and a lot of his work can be recognised today, used in simple paintings or used as merchandise for things such as cups, t-shirts or socks.

The un-normal became normal and the work of artist’s like Warhol could be used with items like billboards, Film posters, super markets and taxi cab adverts. Subject matters of pop art would be iconically Marilyn Monroe, Elvis Presley, Soup, Cows, Bananas, and other things done in this screen print style with the iconic neon colours and blank inky lines. Andy Warhol as an artist has over the years came up in a lot of art lessons for me personally as an inspiration to art itself, we have been taught to mimic his style of art and incorporate it into our own styles, we have been told to look at pop art and have it in mind when creating something.

Pop Culture persevered to become the mainstream and took baby steps in order to get where it wanted. For example, a mainstream company decided to launch in 1981 called MTV. MTV used the pop art style in their logo, with the thick black lines and neon colours. MTV was an American broadcasting company which streamed cartoons and music videos and was aimed at an audience of adolescents and young adults. MTV would broadcast Animated cartoons that also went against the norm like Beavis and Butthead, Daria, and The Brothers Grunt. Broadcasting companies like MTV would introduce pop culture even further to the world and introduce something fresh and unique to the world even more.

Russian constructivism

The Russian Constructivism movement was an architectural idea created by Russians’ in the early 20th century. It was an art movement that had an influence of multiple things, for example Bauhaus. It started off being the work of a man called Alexander Rodchenko. This type of art first appeared in Moscow as building type pieces and work that consisted of geometric shapes and primary colours. It changed the world of art because it moved away from the typical “artsy fartsy” painting style and focused on allowing everyone to be equal in the world of art, because it Typical Russian Contstructivism consists of very political and controversial images. If you were to type this into google images, a whole array of images in similar style's will come up, including modern day influences. The style typically consists of collaging a group of images, and the colour scheme is usually very primary, consisting of blood red, navy blue, and white or yellow. This wasn't just based around posters, as some of this was also architecture based. A lot of the architectural pieces consisted of non mainstream ideas, and a lot of the work was criticised, and often questioned as to why the architects couldn't make something functional like a bridge or a "functional" building. The buildings and pieces would consist of abnormal angles, curves, and sometimes spirals. A lot of the controversy coming from these artists and designers came from the fact that these people were going completely against society with their ideas, and in my opinion that is completely inspiring and a huge land mark in the history of art and design. In the modern day we are always coming across things in art and design that is abnormal but it is often to not think twice about you're looking at, we look at abstract art so often that it is now the "norm" to see past the abnormality and look for deeper interpretations. As well as this factor, art and design has completely expanded it's horizons in the way it is presented, and in my opinion no two designers are exactly the same, as we have learned to create our own perspective and produce that into something that is visual and has came from our own imagination. It is looked up at and praised in the 21st century to be your own person, and i think a lot of art movements like russian constructivism has pushed us towards this society of unique, and non cookie cutter normality.

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