- In 1800, the first presidential contest was the first time that Federalists and Democratic Republicans functioned as two national political parties.
- John Adam's and his federalist's wanted a strong central government.
- Thomas Jefferson and his "Jeffersonian's" described themselves as the guardians of agrarian purity, liberty, and state's rights.
Federalists and Republic Mudslingers
- The Federalist's Alien and Sedition Acts attracted a lot of enemies. Adams refused to give them a fight with France. Preparing for the war made debt increase incredibly and made taxes rise.
- Jefferson was accused of taking a trust fund from a widow and her children. He also was accused of fathering children from his enslaved women.
- Sally Hemings was confirmed through DNA testing to be one of Jefferson's daughters.
The "Jeffersonian Revolution of 1800"
- Jefferson won the election by 73 electoral votes to 65.
- The constitution gave white southern voters a bonus that helped Jefferson win the White House.
- Jefferson's mission was to restore the republican experiment and to check the growth of government power.
Responsibility Breeds Moderation
- Thomas Jefferson was sworn into presidency on March 4th, 1801.
- Jefferson's inaugural speech stated, "The will of the majority is in all cases to prevail, that will to be rightful must be responsible; the minority posses their equal rights, which equal law must protect and to violate would be oppression." (Page 207-208)
- Thomas Jefferson pretty much had two identities. One who was a scholarly citizen and one who was a harassed public official.
- Jefferson was Because the Federalist party was so weak, he had to rely on his charm and all of the French imported goods to get the attention of the congressional representatives.
- After a meeting between the congress, the Jeffersonian's enforced the new naturalization law of 1802.
- Jefferson's devotion to principle costed the government a million dollars a year.
- The Jeffersonian's did not mess with the Federalist programs or launch any attack of the Bank of the United States.
The "Dead Clutch" of the Judiciary
- The Federalist Congress passed the Judiciary Act of 1801.
- They also created 16 new federal judgeship's and other judicial offices.
- But the Republican-Democratic congress repealed the act and kicked out 16 newly seated judges.
Jefferson, a Reluctant Warrior
- Jefferson wanted to make military smaller.
- Tripoli declared war on the U.S. and forced Jefferson to change his thoughts of not using military fore.
- After four years of fighting, Jefferson sent the new navy to Tripoli.
- The U.S. paid Tripoli $60,000 to let the captured Americans go.
The Louisiana Godsend
- Napoleon convinced the king of Spain to give Louisiana land area France in 1800.
- Jefferson sent James Monroe to join Robert Livingston in Paris in 1803 to buy as much land as possible for $10 million.
- Napoleon sold all of Louisiana.
Louisiana in the Long View
- Jefferson sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the northern pat of the Louisiana Purchase.
The Aaron Burr Conspiracies
- Aaron Burr was Jefferson's first term vice president.
- Burr plotted the secession of New England and New York.
- The Orders in Council was issued in 1806 by England.
A Precarious Neutrality
- In 1803, Napoleon provoked a renewal conflict of his war with Britain. This raged on for 11 years.
- Jefferson was reelected in 1804.
- Napoleon crushed the combined Austrian and Russian armies.
The Hated Embargo
- Jefferson had a large antinavalism, causing the army to become weaker than what it already was.
- Europe was dependent on the U.S. for food and materials.
- The European Act passed forbidding all goods from the U.S.
- Jefferson served his 2 terms and was happy to escape.
- Madison took the presidential oath on March 4, 1809.
- Madison was iffy with Napoleon and knew he couldn't be trusted.
Tecumseh and the Prophet
- Madison's party was full of young, hot headed guys.
- As more whites came in, the Indians were "pushed towards the setting sun".
- William Henry Harrison made an army and rushed to Tecumseh's headquarters.
Mr. Madison's War
- Madison believed that war with Britain would be inevitable.
- Madison turned to war to restore confidence in the republican experiment.
- War was declared on June 1, 1812.
- New England Federalists were against Madison's war and this led them to treason.
- The U.S. had no other choice than to go against the most powerful empire in the world, Britain.
John Adams was born in Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1735. He was a Harvard educated lawyer and this got him interested in the patriot cause. He led the movement for independence. During the Revolutionary War he served in France and Holland helped with the treaty of peace. Adams served two terms as Vice President. He once said, "My country has in its wisdom contrived for me the most insignificant office that ever the invention of man contrived or his imagination conceived." In 1797, Adams became president of the United States.
Thomas Jefferson was born in 1743 in Alembert County, Virginia. Thomas was a correspondent but was never a public speaker in the Virginia House of Burgesses and the Continental Congress. Instead of speaking with his mouth, he spoke with his pen. In 1786, Jefferson wrote a bill for freedom. Losing the election in 1796 to Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson came back with pride and honor and ran for office again. In 1801, on February 1st, Thomas Jefferson was declared president of the United States.
Chief Justice John Marshall was born on September 24th, 1755 in Germantown, Virginia. When Marshall was 35 years old, he started his own law practice and defended his clients against pre-war British creditors. He also held political offices and the position of secretary of state in 1800. Then, in 1801, he became chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
William Marbury was born on November 7th, 1762 in Piscataway, Massachusetts. Marbury became a member of the Federalist Party. While John Adams was in presidency, he issued 42 judicial appointments, one of these judicial appointments being Marbury's Justice of the Peace in the District of Columbia, on March 3, 1801, the day before he turned his government over to President Thomas Jefferson.
Napoleon Bonaparte was born in 1769 on he island of Corsica. He was a French military leader and emperor and conquered parts of Europe in the 19th century. After gaining political power in France in a 1799, he crowned himself emperor in 1804.
- Revolution of 1800- Electoral victory of Democratic Republicans over the Federalists
- "Midnight judges"- Federal justices appointed by John Adams during the last days of his presidency
- Tripolitan War- Four year conflict between the American navy and the North African nation of Tripoli over piracy in the Mediterranean
- Haitian Revolution- War incited by a slave uprising in French controlled Saint Dominque
- Louisiana Purchase- Acquisition of Louisiana Territory from France
- Corps of Discovery- Team of adventurers sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore Louisiana Territory and find a water route to the Pacific (Meriwether Lewis and William Clark)
- Impressment- Act of forcibly drafting an individual into military service
- Orders in Council- Edicts issues by the British crown closing French owned European ports to foreign shipping
- Chesapeake affair- Conflict between Britain and the United States that precipitated the 1807 embargo
- Embargo Act- Enacted in response to British and French mistreatment of American Merchants, banned the export of all goods from the United States to any foreign port