Rivalry in the northwest
- The Oregon country was a huge area located north of California.
- It included all of what is now Oregon, Washington, and Idaho and parts of Montana and Wyoming.
- In the early 1800 four nations claimed this vast rugged land.
- Many Americans wanted control of Oregon in order to gain access to the pacific ocean.
- In 1819 secretary of state john Quincy Adams got Spain to approve the Adam-Onis treaty.
- The Spanish agreed to give up all claims to Oregon.
- The joint occupation meant that people from both the united states and great Britain could settle there.
- Fur traders were the first american people to take up the challenge of living in the Oregon country.
- These men were tough independent men who spent most of there time in the rocky mountains and were known as mountain men.
- Most of them had native american wives.
What did Americans gain from the Adams-Onis treaty.
- They gained control of the Oregon country and it made the united states and great Britain have peace for a little bit.
Oregon and the manifest destiny
- In 1830 Americans began traveling to the Oregon country to settle.
- Among the first settlers were Dr. Marcus Whitman and his wife Narcissa.
- They were missionaries who went to Oregon in 1836 and built a mission among the cayuse people near the present site of Walla Walla Washington.
Along the Oregon trail
- In 1843 about a thousand emigrants made the journey to Oregon.
- They stuffed their canvas covered wagons with supplies for their journey.
- From a distance these wagons looked like ships at sea they called them prairie schooners.
America Seeks its Manifest Destiny
- Since colonial times many Americans believed that their mission as a nation to serve as a model of freedom.
- In the 1800s that vision changed, it was then believed to be to spread freedom.
- In 1819 a newspaper editor expressed that our mission should be a manifest destiny to overspread and to posses the whole of the continent which providence has given us.
Fifty-Four Forty or Fight
- Many Americans wanted the united states to take over all of Oregon.
- In the 1844 election, James k. Polk supported this desire.
- Henry clay did not support this issue.
Polk did agree with the united states taking over oregon but clay did not he didnt belive we needed to.
Statehood for Florida and Texas-Question one
How did Florida become a state.
President John Tyler signed the Florida statehood bill.
- When Spain transferred Florida to the united states on July 17, 1821 Florida became American territory.
- Tallahassee became the territorial legislature capital in 1824.
- Many planters from Virginia and Georgia moved to Florida to find better farm land.
The Territory Grows
- In 1837 the census for the territory of Florida reported that 48,000 people lived there.
- Florida voters chose 56 people to attend the constitutional convention in St. Joseph a small port city on the Gulf Coast.
- Florida's desire to enter the Union as a slave state caused some difficulty.
Statehood for Florida
- Florida became the 27 state of the united states in 1845.
- In 1846 Iowa became a free state.
- The balance between the slave and free states in the nation remained the same in congress.
- In 1821 Mexico won independence from Spain.
- At first mexico encouraged Americans to settle in Texas.
- Most people were Tejanos or Mexicans who claimed Texas as their home.
- In 1830 mexico issued a decree, or official order, closing its borders to further immigration.
- The Texans had only about 180 soldiers to take on Santa Anna's army or thousands.
- The Texans did have brave leaders, however, including Davy Crockett, William B. Travis, and Jim Bowie.
- For 13 days the Alamo kept Santa Anna's army at bay.
Texas Declares its Independence
- Texan leaders set up a temporary government.
- This government named Sam Houston commander in chief of the Texan forces.
- On April 21 the Texans launched a surprise attack, shouting, Remember the Alamo.
The Lone Star Republic
- In September 1836 Texans elected Sam Houston as their president.
- Houston sent a delegation to ask the United States to annex or take control of Texas.
- Andrew Jackson refused their request.
Texas becomes a state
- Many Texans wanted to join the Unites States.
- Manifest Destiny was a popular idea at the time.
- The south wanted Texas.
Why did it take a long time for the United States to annex Texas
They couldn't decide if they wanted to do it because they thought it would upset the balance between slave states and free states.
How did the Santa Fe Trail benefit the New Mexico Territory
It made it very easy to trade goods and other things that they wanted to trade between the united states and mexico.
The New Mexico Territory
- In the 1800's the land called New Mexico was a vast region between the Texas and California territories.
- Mexico including New Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821.
- William Becknell the first American trader to reach Santa Fe arrived in 1821.
How did William Becknell influence the American settlement of new Mexico
He was the first american trader to settle in New Mexico.
California's Spanish Culture.
- Spanish explorers and missionaries from Mexico settled California in the 1700's.
- Missions aimed to convert Native Americans Christianity and the Spanish way of life.
- Native Americans learned to farm, and they worked at weaving and other crafts.
- Mexicans bought missions lands and set up huge ranches or ranchos.
- Rancheros are ranch owners.
President James K. Polk was determined to get the California and New Mexico territory from Mexico. Relations between the two countries were not friendly. Polk sent a representative, John Slidell, to Mexico to propose a deal.
A war plan
- Polk planned to defeat mexico by accomplishing three goals.
- By 1847 Zachary Taylor had accomplished the first goal.
- His army had captured all the important towns on the border of Mexico and Texas.
Before the war with mexico started northern Californians began an uprising. The bear flag republic did not last long. On September 1847, they captured mexico's capital.
Mexico was defeated on February 2, 1848. Mexico gave the United States more than 500,000 square miles. They questioned if the new lands should allow slavery.
- Mexico's leaders signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
- The United states paid Mexico $15 million.
- With Oregon and the former Mexican territories under the American flag the dream of Manifest Destiny had been realized.
What did America gain from the Mexican War
We gained control over Texas, California, and New Mexico.
How did the discovery of gold help California
It made California a rich state and brought people into it.
California Gold Rush
When gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill in 1848 people from all over the world came to California. Americans made up about 80 percent of forty-niners. 300 men arrived in California from China.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war with meixco. The treaty also guaranteed them the rights of the united states. Many people lose their land.
The Life of a Forty-Niner
As people rushed to a new area to look for gold, they built new communities. Cities also flourished during the Gold Rush. Most forty-niners had no experience in mining.
Gold Rush Society
Mining camps contained men of all backgrounds. Many men spent their time drinking.
Economic and Political progress
The Gold Rush had lasting effects on California.
How did the California Gold Rush lead to the expansion of cities
It brought more and more people into California and those people had needs.
A religious refuge in Utah
While the Gold Rush was transforming California, change was taking place nearby Utah.
The Mormons Move on
The Church of Jesus Christ of latter-day Saints was among a Number of religious movement s that spring up during the religious awakening. Smith published The Book of Mormon that year. Smith hoped to use his visions to build an ideal society.
A Haven in the Desert
The Mormon migration began in 1846. In 1847 the Mormons finally reached the Great Salt Lake. In 1848 the United Sates acquired the Salt Lake area.
Why did the Mormons have to keep moving from one place to another
People didn't like there religion of having more than one wife.