Rivalry in the Northwest
- In the early 1800s, four nations claimed the vast, rugged land known as the Oregon Country.
- The United States based its claim on Robert Gray's discovery of the Columbia River in 1792 and the Lewis and Clark expedition.
- Great Britain had explored the Columbia River. Spain controlled California, and Russia had settlements south from Alaska into Oregon.
- Many Americans wanted control of Oregon in order to gain access to the pacific Ocean.
- In 1819 secretary of State John Quincy Adams got Spain to approve the Adams-Onis Treaty.
Mountain Men in Oregon
- Fur traders had been the first Americans to take up the challenge of living in the Oregon Country.
- They came to trap beaver, whose skins were in great demand in Europe. The British established trading post in the region, as did merchant John Jacob Astor of New York.
"What did America gain from the Adams-Onis Treaty?"
They thought that the border of Oregon should have different latitudes.
Oregon and Manifest Destiny
- In the 1830s, America began traveling to the Oregon Country to settle.
- Economic troubles in the East and reports of Oregon's fertile land drew many people.
Marcus and Narcissa Whitman
- Among the first settlers were Dr. Marcus Whitman and his wife, Narcissa.
- They were missionaries who went to Oregon in 1836 and built a mission among the Cayuse people near the present site of Walla Walla, Washington.
Along the Oregon Trail
- The Whitman massacre was a shocking event, but it did little to stop the flood of pioneers on their way to Oregon.
- Drawn by the reports of fertile Oregon land, and driven by economic hard times in the East, many Americans took the trail.
America seeks its Manifest Destiny
- Since colonial times, many Americans had believed their nation's mission should be to serve as a model of freedom and democracy.
- In the 1800s that vision changed. Many believed that the nation's mission was to spread freedom by settling the entire continent.
- In 1819 John Quincy Adams expressed what many Americans were thinking when he said expansion to the Pacific was as certain as the Mississippi River flowing to sea.
Fifty-Four Forty or Fight
- Many Americans wanted the United States to take over all of Oregon.
- In the 1844 Presidential election, James K. Polk, the Democratic nominee, supported this desire.
- Democrats used the slogan "Fifty-Four Forty or Fight," referring to the line of latitude they believed should be the nation's northern border in Oregon.
"How did Polk's views differ from Clay's on the 1844 election?"
They thought that the boarder of Oregon should have different latitudes
How did Florida become a state?
Spain transferred Florida to the United States on July 17, 1821
- When Spain transferred Florida to the United States on July 17, 1821, Florida became an American territory.
- Under the terms of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, Florida had an appointed territorial governor.
- A territorial legislature, and a nonvoting delegate to the United States Congress.
The Territory Grows
- In 1837 the census for the territory of Florida reported that 48,000 people lived there.
- Enslaved people made up about one-half to Florida's population.
Statehood of Florida
- President John Tyler signed the Florida statehood bill.
What caused the population of Florida to grow?
They had a lot of enslaved people
- In 1821 Mexico won independence from Spain.
- Mexico controlled the land that is now Texas. At the time, the non-Native American population of Texas was about 3,000.
- Most of these people were Tejanos, or Mexicans who claimed Texas as their home.
- The Texans had only about 180 soldiers to take on Santa Anna's army of several thousand.
- The Texans did have brave leaders, however, including folk hero Davy Crockett, commander William B. Travis, and a tough Texan named Jim bowie
Texas Declares It's Independence
- During the siege at the Alamo, Texan leaders met at the town of Washington-on-the-Brazos.
- Texan leaders set up a temporary government.
The Lone Star Republic
- In September 1836, Texans elected Sam Houston as their president.
- Mirabeau Lamar, who had fought at the Battle of San Jacinto, served as a vice president.
Texas became a State
- Many Texans wanted to join the United States.
- Southerners favored Texas annexation, but Northerners opposed admitting another slave state to the Union.
Why did it take a long time for the United States to annex Texas?
It took a long time because they had to have a certain amount of slaves to become a free state.
War with Mexico
How did the Santa Fe Trail benefit the New Mexico?
It made it easier to trade goods.
The New Mexico Territory
- In the early 1800s, the land called New Mexico was a vast region between the Texas and California territories.
- It included all of the land that is now the states of New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada and Utah and parts of Colorado and Wyoming.
How did William Becknell influence the American settlement of New Mexico?
He was the first American trader.
California's Spanish Culture
- Spanish explores and missionaries from Mexico settled California in the 1700s.
- Captain Gaspar de Portola and Father Junipero Serra began a chain of missions that eventually extended from San Diego to Sonoma.
- President James K. Polk was determined to get the California and New Mexico territories from Mexico.
- Relations between the two countries were not friendly.
- Polk sent a representative, John Slidell, to Mexico to propose a deal.
A War Plan
- Polk planned to defeat Mexico by accomplishing three goals.
- By 1847, Zachary Taylor had accomplished the First goal.
- Even before war with Mexico officially began, American settlers in northern California had began, American settlers in northern California had begun an uprising.
- They were encouraged by American general John C. Fremont.
Peace of Terms
- Defeated on February 2, 1848, Mexico's leader signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
- Mexico gave the United States more than 500,000 square miles of territory.
What did America gain from the Mexican War?
They gained territory from Mexico.
California and Utah
How did the discovery of gold help California
It made California a rich state and brought people into it.
California Gold Rush
- When gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill in 1848, people from all over the world traveled to California in search of riches.
- Americans made up about 80 percent of the forty-niners.
- The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war with Mexico and made Californios.
- The land law of 1851, however, established a group of reviewers who examined the Californios' land rights.
The life of a Forty-niner
- As people rushed to a new area to look for gold, they built new communities.
- Towns and small cities appeared almost overnight.
Gold Rush Society
- Mining camps contained men of all backgrounds but few women.
Economic and Political Progress
- The gold rush had lasting effects on California.
How did the California Gold rush lead to the expansion of cities?
There were more people coming to mine so they had to expand
A Religious Refuge in Utah
- While the Gold Rush was transforming California,change was also taking place in Nearby Utah.
The Mormons Move On
- The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was among a number of religious movements that sprang up during religious awakening of the 1830s and 1840s.
- The founder of the Mormons Church was Joseph Smith.
- He began preaching Mormon ideas in 1830.
A Haven in the Desert
- The Mormon migration began in 1846. About 12,000 Mormons made the trek in the largest single migration in American history.
- In 1847 the Mormons finally reached the Great Salt Lake.
- At first life was difficult for the settlers.
Why did the Mormons have to keep moving from one place to another?
The migration kept growing so they had to keep moving