Advertising Gwen Wong

Sell and Spin - The history of advertising.

  • Grabbing attention and selling the product
  • Creating desire + tapping into a need.
  • Words and visual presentation are supposed to satisfy the audience.
  • It has to "delight the eyeballs" and motive viewers into consumer action
  • Creates illusion that it is directed solely at the individual viewer.
  • Personal mode of advertising.
  • Advertising has spread the gospel between nationalities.
  • 3000 adverts daily - ( 20+ years ago)
  • $450 bill Us worldwide annual spend or advertising (e.g.- Coca Cola.)
  • Leo Bennet - Creating personalities and a product.
  • Once someone finds the right audience or place for the product to be in hand with, you would be in a success.
  • Some products can't be sold - due to the lack of visual presentation and the advertising skills.
  • Adverts can sometime associate with values and person beliefs, this would make the advert more persuasive and interesting.
  • Some adverts didn't go as planned, such as: Ford Edsel ( a car brand )
  • If the adverts is not visual appealing, the audiences will not want to buy.
  • Priors are people who walk, talk and advertise their product. > back in the days.
  • During the history of advertisements starts off with just image and text, then after certain amount of years, they made image and text combined and this is how the progress of adverts.
  • Printing press - allows your to create images and text. Normally made with wood, takes the image you wants and uses the print to create that picture or text you want. This links to mass media.
  • Gutenberg printing, middle ages, was the start of mass media.


  • Media saturation - When we are bombarded with adverts...3,000 a day according to the documentary and that was over 20 years ago.
  • Branding- What a product represents ( lifestyle, personality, identify, values, qualities, look)
  • Objectification- The seeing and/or treating a person, usually a woman as a object. In the representation of women this is often a sexual objection.
  • Gender Roles- For women roles are often limited to housewife or sex object. For men, roles are often represented as the bread winner and being served by women.
  • Dismemberment- Cropping and fragmentation of the female body in media images. Often this is the legs or parts of the torso.

Female representation in advertising

  1. What are the links with women, objectification, pornography and pressure faced by young women via social media?
  2. How are men encouraged to view women.

Women are supposed to have the ideal body: No blemishes, no imperfections and have the body of being skinny. If a women body is perfect, younger women


Design a test for assessing the objectification of women in advertising, which is similar to the Rep Test for film and TV. Some of the questions from the original version can be used without changing, others can be adapted. You will also need to come up with some questions of your own that make use of your learning in class today on objectification, dismemberment, gender roles, etc.

Check that your test functions for assessing the representation of women in advertising by trying it out on a couple of examples. Use a similar scoring and grading system as the original version does.

  1. The women does not have the ideal figure that is supposed to have.
  2. The women is aged 50 and above
  3. The women is wearing conservative clothes
  4. Matured age
  5. Wearing no makeup
  6. Shows natural beauty, blemishes and so on....
  7. The advert is appropriate .
  8. The things shown are acceptable.
  9. Not treated as sex objects
  10. Shows the true-self of who they really are.
  11. The advert matches with what the 'model' is trying to show.
  12. Does not influence people to do things a certain way which the advert presents the women.
  13. Show women in their daily life
  14. Does not reflect how people view women
  15. Show the securities and insecurities about people?
  16. Treat woman's body inapparopriately?
  17. Not being abused in the way that she has to take the photograph?
  18. Influences people do have the perfect image of a certain thing?


A neologism ( a made up word ) to represent a changing economic trend in male shopping and representation dating from the 80s however as seen in the Nick Kamen ad, the use of the male body in advertising was not new.


Sport+ porn+metrosexual A spornosexual is a more extreme breed of man than his metro forebear.


A lumber sexual or urban lumber jack is a man who has adopted style traits typical lumber jack, namely a beard, plaid shirt, substituting others clean-cut and fashionable style choices.

A & F study case

Looking at this picture, people will normally link this to gender representation because of the stereotypes that are normally represented in the picture. We can tell that the man has a more built up body shape, with features that people find attracted to. The muscles, and abs are shown and enhanced by the black and white filter. The editing in the picture shown, you can see that there are different tones of black in certain areas, showing more detail and depth of what they are trying to portray out of the man. through this picture, you can see the words are printed in blue and its bold with the website underneath, black and blue contrast together which would make people concentrate on the 'man' as the picture if bigger, however their eyes will focus more on the text as it is blue. The man in this picture if western, this can be backed up with the fact that there is a flag in the background to symbolise where he is from and to show the ethnicity of where A & F is originally from. We can see that the flag is blurred out because they want everyone to focus on the body of the man. So the flag links to where he is from. We can also tell from this picture that the youthful man is represented to be metrosexual, the man is probably from his youth age and he is modelling from A & F


Rosser Reeves 'the hard sell"

How did he attract an audience?

  • Unique selling proposition (USD) = reason why how is peoduct different from others in the market
  • Used diagrams and pictures to inspire people to buy aspirin.
  • repeat endlessly to increase retention.

Why specifically is his Volkswagen campaign so commonly cited as an example of outstanding advertising?

  • user humour to connect to the audience.
  • Using creativity and art.

Advertising Standards & Censorship

Advertising regulation refers to the laws and rules defining the ways in which products can be advertised in a particular region. Rules can define a wide number of different aspects, such as placement, timing, and content. In the United States, false advertising and health-related ads are regulated the most. Two of the most highly regulated forms of advertising are tobacco advertising and alcohol advertising. (Wikipedia)

Analysing adverts

  1. What are these advertising?
  2. What claims are being made about the product?
  3. What images or portraying?
  4. Could companies make the same claims for these products today?
  5. Why?Why not?
  1. These advertisements are advertising cigarettes by showing a women with sports and a packet of cigarettes.
  2. The claims are saying that cigarettes are good for you, and you will be really healthy if you smoke, they show this with a girl who is playing sports smoking a packet of cigarettes.
  3. The image is portraying a women having a healthy life style who seems to be really healthy and fit.
  4. The companies would not make the same claims as they have no prove to show the other wise of the their statement.
  1. This picture is advertising chocolate > maltesers
  2. This advert is showing off how chocolate can make you skinnier and healthier they way you want it to be
  3. The image is portraying that men would give women a packet of maltesers and they would have a really healthy life.
  4. They also could not assume this as it links to them having no evidence, people have put on weight from eating chocolates.

Advertising Regulation Task

  1. Identify the groups of people who appear to be most vulnerable to advertising. That is, who are the regulators trying to protect? The people who appear most vulnerable is the people who are younger and more gullible into ways that they think adverts are portraying the perfect picture and everyone should follow what they say.
  2. Adverts for which products are most strictly regulated? Why do you think this is? Alcohol and Drugs is strictly regulated because it is very closely watched as there is a certain limit in which can be consumed by the audience, there are risks and harms that come to this.
  3. In a group, discuss whether you think adverts need to be regulated. What harm might they do (if any)? Adverts need to be regulated as there may be inappropriate to certain people in the audience, if it is inappropriate they need to be looked at closer and taken into consideration.

Create your own set of regulations.

  1. The advert could not offend people in any way > racism, gender equality and injustice of people.
  2. This advertisement must have a sense of point in which would sell to many audiences.
  3. This audience should not be deceived into thinking something that shouldn't be.
  4. There should be a sensible product/idea you should be selling
  5. Make sure that people will understand and relate to what you are trying to show.
  6. The ad should use basic emotion appeals.
  7. The advert should have a impact on the audience
  8. The advert should create such a story/picture that the viewers wont forget.
  9. The ad should be powerful and speak for itself.
  10. It should tell a simple story and not just put information into one.

Look at these (controversial) ads from the clothing company Benetton. Would they pass your set of regulations? Would you ban them? Be prepared to explain why or why not.

I would ban them as they are not as appropriate for clothing ads, this is because the way the presented the ad is controversial. If this links to racism, and different diversity problems, then it should not be put on the ad as it does not produce a sentimental value influence on the audience. These advert would not pass my regulations, the pictures that are shown are very emotional and they do tell a specific, however its is just not right for the ad to be that inappropriate. If the ad is inappropriate then it should not be shown, as a result i think this is why i find the advert controversial.


Created with images by ai3310X - "Frame the scenery"

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