What is Archaeology?
Archaeology is the study of remains of mankind's past. The word archaeology comes from the two Greek words archaios which means ancient and logia which means to learn or to study. Archaeologists look at old artifacts from a long time ago such as pottery or broken things that might have been left behind which is an important thing from history in our world today.
Different types of archaeology
Classical Archaeology explores artifacts of the ancient civilization of the Mediterranean region. Anthropological Archaeology focuses on prehistory and time before written records were kept is called history site year. There are two different kinds of archaeological sites one is called a prehistoric site and another is called historic site. At a prehistoric site is whenever artifacts are found they are dated before people begin to write records. At a historic site archaeologists can look up information about the artifacts and things that they find.
Tools of archaeology
Archaeologists use many different tools like handpicks ,brushes ,pointed bricklayers ,trowels ,hand shovels, dustpans ,stakes, string,cameras, and a lot more. A trowel is one of the important tools and it used for scraping, slicing, or to clean away any soil. Some bigger tools that archaeologists use are a dumpy level, theodolite, total station, and a mattock. A total station is an electronic instrument used to measure angles and to give a precise location of the artifact. A ground penetrating radar is also electronic and used for detecting artifacts underground. Some archaeologists will use old maps or any other documents to find out where people used to live to go find artifacts. Archaeologists also probe the ground to check for any reflection of sound it would be inserted into the ground to locate any walls or any ditches. To find any small artifacts in the soil they use a metal detector such as on a battlefield or a place where a lot of things were buried.
Numbers of Archaeology
Some archaeologists can get paid up to 10 to 12 dollars an hour depending on where they work. They could also get paid up to 45,000 to 80,000, or even 100,000 dollars a year. in a day they can work eight hours in a day or normally required to work that many hours. To become an archaeologist you need to go to college for at least 6 to 9 years. 80% of universities will graduate half of their students in under 7 to 9 years. There's only about 15% of people that finish in less than 6 years. Archaeologists don't travel that much they may travel within a 100 mile radius or to a site for digging.
What do archaeologist do with the artifacts?
Before any major digging is done a test is performed a way archaeologists do this is they dig test holes called a sondage. A Sondage is a deep trench dug in order to study the relative positions of human artifacts in horizontal layers. The first stage of collecting archaeology data is called preliminary fieldworks . When the archaeologists dig artifacts up it is called an excavation. After the excavation the artifacts are placed in a bag with a label and a number with preservative chemicals. Then they are taken to a museum, university, or a laboratory for more information on the artifact.
Processes and Methods
Archaeologists use more then one dating method. One is relative dating and the other is absolute dating. Thermoluminescent dating is finding out when other pieces of pottery or objects were made. A method that archaeologists use called seriation is when they know certain types of artifacts and they arrange the artifacts in chronological order. A process called contextual analysis is determining the chronology of an artifact and reconstructing the ancient culture from where the artifact came from. All of the artifacts also must be given a name or a number due to the name after its discovery for example FO^ means the first village in Fulton county. Archaeologists also use a grid before they start digging this process was adopted by Zagora.
A little bit of extra facts!
Site clearing is whenever archaeologists removes debris and it can be done with machinery. Archaeologists use equipment such as a GPR which is called a ground penetrating radar. Survey records include the sites designation and the exact location of where the artifact was found and the date it was found, the person who discovered it, and the size of the site of where they found the artifact and a description of the site itself. To become an archaeologist you have to have some of the skills such as good attention to details, good communication, a good mind, you must also have good presentation skills, writing, drawing, and photography skills! To be an archaeologist you must have a lot of patience!
Fun Facts! :)
- Did you know that you have to have a Bachelors degree in college to do Archaeology and the positions of a field assistant, surveyor, or a museum technician.
- Broken pieces of glass are called potsherds which is important in archaeology.
- Broken pieces of glass is called shards
- Archaeologists are employed by federal and state government agencies.
- They don't just dig things from history they also are responsible for protecting and watching archaeological sites.
- There is also archaeologists that go underwater to find artifacts!
- They dig small holes called shovel test pits usually about 100 feet.
- Some major jobs are looking for excavation sites, planning, collecting and analyzing data, writing papers, and determining how artifacts would have looked
- Archaeologist can figure out and determine what the person ate they do it through coprology and analyzing the human bones with different forms of carbon and nitrogen
- Archaeologists can find sites that have no surface traces through photographs and use the photos for clues.
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