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Albina Head Start Potty Training Resources

The following information is provided to help you and your child in your "Potty Training Journey".

There is not one 'right' way or one 'right' age to learn how to use the toilet.

Le't talk about potty training

Potty training success hinges on physical, developmental and behavioral milestones, not age. Many children show signs of being ready for potty training between ages 18 and 24 months. However, others might not be ready until they're 3 years old. There's no rush. If you start too early, it might take longer to train your child.

Potty training is a big step for kids and their parents.The secret to success? Timing and patience. —

Bowel and Bladder Control:

Most children develop control over their bowel and bladder by 18 months. This skill is necessary for children to physically be able to use the toilet. How ready a child is emotionally to begin learning to use the potty depends on the individual child. Some children are ready at 18 months, and others are ready at 3. While every child is different, about 22% of children are out of diapers by 2½, and 88% of children are out of diapers by 3½. Girls tend to achieve bowel and bladder control at a slightly younger age than boys.

How long until a child is potty trained:

The average time from the start of potty training to the child achieving independent toileting skills, varies from three to six months. Make sure that you have enough time to patiently help your child every day. If others care for your child, tell them about your plans for toilet learning.

It’s important that everyone is consistent and working together.

Information from this section from: (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2019) (Zero to Three, 2020)

Signs that children are ready for potty training

Your Child is ready to learn to use the toilet when he or she:

  • Stays dry for at least 2 hours at a time, or after naps
  • Recognizes that she is urinating or having a bowel movement. For example, your child might go into another room or under the table when she has a bowel movement. This is important—if you child does not realize she is having a bowel movement, she won’t be successful at potty training.
  • Is developing physical skills that are critical to potty training—the ability to walk, to pull pants up and down, steady and balanced when sitting on the toilet or potty and able to get onto/off the potty (with some help).
  • Shows an interest in the potty (by watching you, copying your toilet behavior or by liking books about learning to use the potty)
  • Can follow simple instructions.
  • Most important, your child wants to use the potty. He may tell you that he wants to wear “big boy” underpants or learn to go potty “like Daddy does.” He may feel uncomfortable in a soiled diaper and ask to be changed or ask to use the toilet himself.

Information for this section is from: (Zero to Three, 2020)

When not to start potty training

There are some issues that can sometimes get in the way of successful potty training.

For example, when children are going through a significant change or several changes at once (see list below) it might be smart to hold off on adventures in potty training. At these times, children often feel overwhelmed and sometimes lose skills they have already learned or were making progress on, like potty training. Common situations that can cause stress and are generally not good times to start training include:

  • An upcoming or recent family move
  • Beginning new or changing existing child care arrangements
  • Switching from crib to bed
  • When you are expecting or have recently had a new baby.
  • A major illness, a recent death, or some other family crisis

If your child is in the middle of potty training during a stressful time and seems to be having more accidents than usual, know that this is normal. Your child needs all of your patience and support right now. She will return to her previous level of potty training once things have gotten back to normal.

Information for this section is from: (Zero to Three, 2020)

Photo Creator and Copyright: CareyHope

Ready, set, go!

When it's time to start potty training, it can be helpful to think of potty training as a process in which both you and your child have your own “jobs” to do.

Photographer Andrea Mandel Agency: Ogilvy & Mather for Huggies Pull-Ups

It is the parent’s responsibility to create a supportive learning environment. This means that you:

  • Recognize that your child is in control of his or her body
  • Let your child decide whether to use the potty or a diaper/pull-up each day
  • Teach your child words for body parts, urine, and bowel movements
  • Offer your child the tools she needs to be successful at toileting (such as a small potty, potty seat, stool, etc.)
  • Expect and handle potty accidents without anger
  • Avoid punishment as well as too much praise around toilet use. (This can make children feel bad when they aren’t successful.)
Photo from headtopics.com

It is your child’s responsibility to:

  • Decide whether to use the toilet or a diaper/pull-up
  • Learn his body’s signals for when he needs to use the toilet
  • Use the toilet at his own speed

Information for this section is from: (Zero to Three, 2020)

Universal Potty Training Rules

"Rules" that will enhance your family’s experience no matter what method you choose.

Be Positive

Children learn better when they are praised for their progress rather than punished for their mistakes. Do what you can to help your child succeed as often as possible—even if it means learning gradually, one tiny step at a time. When she progresses, give her a hug, some praise, and perhaps even a small tangible reward. When she fails, tell her you’re sure she’ll do better next time and ask her to help you clean up.

Be Consistent

Create reasonable expectations according to your child’s abilities, express them clearly and frequently, and expect your child to at least try to follow them every time. Keep her bathroom routine as consistent as possible, with her potty in the same place every day and the sequence of actions—including wiping and hand washing—the same every time. While she is toilet-training, praise your child for each success, and provide predictable, nonpunitive consequences (such as helping to clean up) for each failure. Make sure that your approach to toilet training is consistent with those of your child’s other caregivers as well.

Stay Involved and Observe

Very young children’s needs, behaviors, and abilities change frequently and, to some extent, unpredictably. Toilet-training approaches that worked two weeks ago may not work today, and skills that your child mastered in the past may temporarily disappear in the face of new challenges. Continue to monitor your child’s bathroom behavior throughout toilet training and afterward so that you can quickly identify and resolve any new problems that arise

Enjoy

Toilet training is a necessary chore, but it can also be fun at times. Don’t take your child’s hesitations, passing fears, or resistance too seriously. Nearly every child learns to use the toilet sooner or later, and your child will, too. Do what you can to occasionally take your eye off the long-term goal and enjoy the charming, funny moments along the way.

Information for this section from: (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2009)

Create a Potty Training Plan

Choose Words for Body Fluids, Functions and Parts.

Using the right words, such as urine, bowel movement, penis and vagina, can help avoid confusion or embarrassment. .

Avoid negative words like “dirty” or “stinky,” which can make your child feel self-conscious

Prepare the Equipment

Dress your child in clothes she can pull up and down easily.

Place a potty chair in the bathroom or, initially, wherever your child is spending most of his or her time.

Let your child watch you use the toilet or pretend to help a favorite doll or stuffed animal use the toilet.

Encourage your child to sit on the potty chair in clothes to start out, and then encourage him to sit on it for a few minutes without wearing a diaper. Make sure your child's feet rest on the floor or a stool.

For boys, it's often best to master urination sitting down, and then move to standing up after bowel training is complete.

You might dump the contents of a dirty diaper into the potty chair and toilet to show their purpose.

Have your child flush the toilet

Schedule Potty Breaks

Have your child sit on the potty chair or toilet without a diaper for a few minutes at two-hour intervals, as well as first thing in the morning and right after naps.

Watch for signs that she needs to use the toilet. Encourage your child to tell you when she needs to go. Be sure to praise her, even if she tells you after the fact.

Stay with your child and read a book together or play with a toy while he or she sits.

Allow your child to get up if he or she wants. Even if your child simply sits there, offer praise for trying — and remind your child that he or she can try again later. Bring the potty chair with you when you're away from home with your child

Get There Fast!

When you notice signs that your child might need to use the toilet — such as squirming, squatting or holding the genital area — respond quickly. Help your child become familiar with these signals, stop what he or she is doing, and head to the toilet. Praise your child for telling you when he or she has to go. Keep your child in loose, easy-to-remove clothing.

Explain Hygiene

Teach girls to spread their legs and wipe carefully from front to back to prevent bringing germs from the rectum to the vagina or bladder.

Most will need you to wipe for them, especially after bowel movements, until preschool age.

Make sure your child washes his or her hands afterward.

Ditch the Diapers

After a couple of weeks of successful potty breaks and remaining dry during the day, your child might be ready to trade diapers for training pants or underwear. Celebrate the transition.

Let your child return to diapers if he or she is unable to remain dry.

If your child resists using the potty chair or toilet or isn't getting the hang of it within a few weeks, take a break. Chances are he or she isn't ready yet. Pushing your child when he or she isn't ready can lead to a frustrating power struggle. Try again in a few months.

Information for this section from: (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2019) (Caring For Kids, 2018)

Potty Training Songs

Trying including songs as part of your Potty Training Routine

"When you have to go Potty, Stop and Go Right Away" Daniel Tiger's Neighborhood

"Go Potty, Go" Daniel Tiger's Neighborhood

Nap time and Nighttime Potty Training

Accidents While Sleeping are Common

Even though your child may be clean and dry all day, it could take several more months or years for them to stay dry during naps or all night. Most children's systems don't mature enough to stay dry all night until at least age 5, 6 or even 7. Bed wetting through age 7 is considered normal and not a problem to worry about.

Possible Causes of Bedwetting

  • Your child is a deep sleeper and does not awaken to the signal of a full bladder.
  • Your child has not yet learned how to hold and empty urine well. (Communication between the brain and bladder may take time to develop.)
  • Your child's body makes too much urine at night.
  • Your child is constipated. Full bowels can put pressure on the bladder and lead to problems with holding and emptying urine well.
  • Your child has a minor illness, is overly tired, or is responding to changes or stresses going on at home.
  • There is a family history of bedwetting. Most children who wet the bed have at least one parent who had the same problem as a child.
  • Your child's bladder is small or not developed enough to hold urine for a full night.
  • Your child has an underlying medical problem.

What You Can Do

Most children wet their beds during toilet training. Even after they stay dry at night for a number of days or even weeks, they may start wetting at night again. If this happens to your child, simply go back to training pants at night and try again another time. The problem usually disappears as children get older.

If you are concerned about your child's bedwetting or your child expresses concern, talk with your child's doctor.

Managing Bedwetting

No amount of pressure or scolding will stop your toddler from wetting the bed until she's developmentally ready. In fact, negativity may only increase accidents (and harm your child's self-esteem to boot). So be patient and in the meantime, heed these tips:

Lower your expectations.

Most kids aren’t able to stay dry through the night until they’re 5 or older because their bladders are too small, they lack muscle control, or they sleep too soundly to sense when their bladders are full. So manage your expectations. It's completely normal for your child to be unable to hold it in all night long even after she's been potty trained.

Take steps before bedtime.

Make sure your child can easily reach the bathroom at night. For example, use a night light in the hall or in the bathroom

Tell him that if he wakes up in the middle of the night and needs to use the toilet, he can either go by himself or come get you.

Have your child use the bathroom at least once before bed. Make it part of your bed time routine.

Your child should avoid drinking fluids before bed. Children should have most of their fluids in the morning and afternoon.

Protect the bed.

Use diapers or Pull-Ups at night.

A plastic cover under the sheets protects the mattress from getting wet and smelling like urine.

Try to wake your child up to use the toilet

Wake your child 1 to 2 hours after going to sleep to help your child stay dry through the night.

Do not blame your child.

Remember that it is not your child's fault. (See "Possible Causes of bedwetting.")

Be honest with your child about what is going on.

Let your child know it's not his or her fault and that most children outgrow bedwetting.

Be sensitive to your child's feelings.

If you don't make a big issue out of bedwetting, chances are your child won't either. Also remind your child that other children wet the bed.

Let your child help.

Encourage your child to help change the wet sheets and covers. This teaches responsibility. It can also keep your child from feeling embarrassed if the rest of the family knows. However, if your child sees this as punishment, it is not recommended.

Set a no-teasing rule in your family.

Do not let family members, especially siblings, tease your child. Let them know that it's not your child's fault.

When he has stayed dry for several nights in a row, you might want to try cotton underpants or training pants.

Be laid-back.

When she does have an accident, treat the whole episode nonchalantly as you quietly change the bedding and help her get into dry jammies (easier said than done when you’re exhausted).

It’s not necessary to change a sleeping child who is wet. There is no harm in sleeping in wet PJs. Leave a towel and change of clothes in case your child does wake up. Do what is best for you and your child.

Whatever you do, don’t scold your toddler for something beyond her control.

Information for this section from: (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2013) (Caring For Kids, 2018)(Donaldson-Evans, 2019) (Healthwise Staff, 2019)

To Use Rewards or Not

Many parents wonder about offering rewards for using the potty—a sticker, an extra sweet, or a little toy every time their child is successful on the toilet.

Although these kinds of rewards may encourage progress in the short run, the concern is that for some children, the pressure of “success” in the form of the reward creates anxiety or feelings of failure when they have a (very normal and even expected) potty accident.

The other risk is that the use of rewards for toileting can lead children to expect rewards for doing almost anything—finishing a meal, brushing teeth, etc.

When parents are matter-of-fact about potty training and don’t make a big deal about it, children are more likely to follow their own internal desire to reach this important milestone.

The child needs to be praised whenever he or she expresses an interest in sitting on the potty. Encouragement and support are more appropriate reinforcement techniques.

Do what works best for you and your child.

The more you bring attention to positive behaviors, the more likely they will repeat these actions. You can say things like,

“You said you needed to go potty and then you did it! Great job!”

Try modeling positive self-talk: When you go to the bathroom, bring the child along and then say,

“I did it! I used the potty!”

Information for this section is from: (Zero to Three, 2020) (Wells, 2020)

Accidents Will Happen

Accidents Are Natural

Even after children have learned to use the toilet, it’s natural for them to have an “accident” once in a while. Though toilet accidents are frustrating, children manage better when their parents are patient and remind them of their successes rather than making them feel bad when they’ve wet or soiled their pants.

There may be times, like when they’re sick or have a cold, that children will lapse into bedwetting. They have less control of their bladders when they aren’t well or when they’re upset about changes in their lives (like the arrival of a new baby in the family, a move from one home to another, or other stresses)

Even though toilet accidents are frustrating, children manage better when their parents are patient and remind them of their successes rather than making them feel bad when they’ve wet or soiled their pants. Children really do want to please their parents, and they like the feeling of “growing up.” - Fred Rogers

Dealing with Toilet Accidents

Even though it's natural for parents to feel upset about accidents, it's important to try to be matter of fact about them. Many children already feel bad when they've had a toilet accident. It’s important not to make them feel too ashamed to try the next time.

1. Be comforting.

Your child may be upset after having an accident, so be sensitive.

You had an accident, but that's okay. Lots of kids have accidents. Maybe next time you'll make it to the potty in time."

Never scold, criticize or punish your child for having a setback.

If the child is old enough, have them help you change their clothes.

2. Remember the process varies for all kids.

While most kids are potty trained by about 3 years old, all kids develop at different rates and some might need more time. So be sure your child is old enough and has been showing signs of readiness.

3. Troubleshoot.

Does your child seem stressed or tired? Anxious? Talk to your child about possible triggers for the setback. 

Are you nervous about moving to our new house?"

OR

Has it been different with your new brother at home?"

Then try to help her communicate her feelings about what's upsetting her. You can then offer reassurance to help build confidence.

It's normal to feel scared about your new daycare. But those feelings will go away.”

4. Go back to potty training basics.

Be clear about when and how to use the potty. Suggest regular bathroom breaks at key times, such as first thing in the morning, after meals and snacks, before a ride in the car and before bed, but try not to nag.

Do not ask the child if they have to go to the bathroom tell them it's "time to go" to the bathroom. Asking implies that the child has a choice. Unless you are OK with them saying "NO." Tell don't ask.

5. Improve your child's chances for success.

Keep the potty in a strategic place, and dress your child in easy-on, easy-off bottoms.

6. Try training pants.

If you're potty training on the earlier side, training pants can make potty training less messy and help teach wetness awareness with cute graphics that fade when they get wet. If your child is potty training later, you may want to stick with pull-ups when accidents would be inconvenient (such as when you're away from home), and use cotton underwear for at-home training sessions.

7. Offer praise every step of the way.

Help motivate your child by playing up the "big kid" angle. Focus on positive reinforcement and enthusiastic praise when she does successfully use the potty.

8. Give it a rest.

If you've ruled out other underlying causes and your child's regression lasts longer than a month, she may simply not be ready. In that case, give potty training a break for a little while. Just get back on track as soon as your child does seem to be showing signs of readiness, since consistency is essential to success.

Information for this section is from: (Fred Rodgers Productions, 2020) (O’Connor, 2018)

What to do when your toddler "stops" potty training.

Is It "Normal"?

YES! It is "normal" for children to stop potty training. This is also called "regression"

Children tackle potty training in phases, and it’s important for parents to realize that potty training often conflicts with other developmental milestones our toddlers are facing.

Dr. Lavin says it’s very common for children to begin potty training and then come to a “screeching halt” once they realize what it’s all about — particularly when they realize it’s important to you. (Sigh.) “If they are battling you over the toilet, they are probably also battling you on things like food, sleep, and discipline,” says Dr Lavin. “And if you are begging them to do any of these things, you are letting your child hold all of the cards.” (Krupa, 2020)

Common causes of Regression

  • Change in the child-care routine—for example, a new sitter, or starting a child-care or preschool program
  • The mother’s pregnancy or the birth of a new sibling
  • A major illness on the part of the child or a family member
  • A recent death
  • Marital conflict or parents’ divorce
  • An upcoming or recent move to a new house

How To Respond When your Toddler Suddenly Stops Potty Training

Don't take it personally

Toilet training is stressful — for kids and parents! Remind yourself that regression is normal, and can happen for many reasons, including normal child development stages, a change in routine, a new sibling, a move... a global pandemic. You get the idea. Any strong-willed toddler wants to feel in control, and these big changes from their routine can be frustrating or scary.

The good news is that dedicated time at home — can actually help families navigate these difficult regression phases. Increased togetherness also increases a parent’s credibility in the eyes of our children.

Stay as calm as possible — even when cleaning up accidents.

“Using the bathroom is a natural and necessary skill” and we don’t want to give children the impression that learning is stressful or upsetting, says Patricia Kane. She recommends parents present the consequences of having an accident in a neutral, even tone of voice. In other words, when you feel so mad that you want to roar, take a deep breath and channel Mom and Dad Tiger. Say something like, “You peed in your pants. Here are your clothes. You need to change.”

Have your child take charge of accident clean up.

Children want to be viewed as helpers — and that can apply to cleaning up potty training messes, too. Dr. Lavin suggests having your child go into the bathroom and take off their own dirty clothes. You can close the door and wait outside until they have finished.

Use a checklist to remind children about bathroom routines.

Patricia Kane recommends checklists children can see or hear to help them learn the steps involved in using the toilet. Strategy songs from Daniel Tiger (“When You Have to Go Potty, Stop...and Go Right Away” and “Go Potty, Go") worked as a checklist with two of my kids. However, my son responded better to a visual checklist taped up in the bathroom. We took photos of bathroom items (e.g. toilet, toilet paper, soap, etc.) and placed the pictures in order on a piece of paper. You could also draw photos, have your child draw photos, or cut pictures from a newspaper or magazine to show the steps.

The best reward? Encouraging words!

We all like to hear we’re doing a good job — and giving our children encouragement during toilet training is essential. Patricia Kane recommends being specific about what children are doing well during potty training. It’s not uncommon, for example, to give multiple ‘good jobs’ during one bathroom trip. (Good job pulling your pants up!” “I like that you used two pumps of soap,” and “I like that you used a little bit of toilet paper.”)

Know when to call the pediatrician.

Regression can sometimes signal an infection or other disorder that requires medical treatment. So if you’re feeling concerned, give your pediatrician a call.

Dr. Lavin said 1 in 3 toddlers suffers from constipation, and it factors into toilet training. “Some kids say, ‘I won’t poop anymore’ and try to hold it in,” Dr. Lavin says. “Of course, this has painful consequences.”

Know that bedwetting is also normal — even after potty training progress.

Staying dry overnight ― called nighttime urinary continence ― usually follows within a few months after a child has fully mastered daytime bladder control. (Although, it’s taken all of my kids much longer!) “Nighttime and daytime are totally different,” says Dr. Lavin. “Bedwetting occurs during REM sleep and is not under a child’s control. Even if you stop giving them drinks at 6pm, there will still be pee there.”

Information for this section is from: (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2009) (Krupa, 2020)

Laugh

The Holderness family creates original music and parodies to poke fun of themselves and celebrate the absurdity in circumstances most families face. And they made a YouTube Channel so we can all laugh along with them.

If you're a parent to a boy, you know the daily torture of stepping in pee, sitting on pee, and swiping up pee-colored drips on the toilet seat because your son has bad aim in the bathroom. It's a constant struggle, and one that the Holderness crew is all too familiar with. So our favorite rapping fam is now taking on the topic in a new parody video called "Aint Nothing But a Pee Thang." (Becker, 2017)

Other Resources

Books

11 potty-training books we love: Toddler-friendly stories, pictures, and step-by-step guides that are sure to ease the potty-training process.

15 Best Potty Training Books: Need to start the potty training process? Here are the top potty training books to help you and your child make the first steps to mastering the milestone.

Best Potty Training Books: Books can also help you get the conversation started, teach your toddler the basics and get him excited about the idea of trying the potty on his own.

Best Potty Training Books for Toddlers: These potty training books for babies and toddlers can (hopefully) make the process a little more enjoyable.

La Biblioteca Recomienda: ¡Adios pañales! | Multcolib Spanish Picks: Toilet training: Después de haber cambiado cientos de pañales seguramente le gustaría que su pequeño empiece a ir al baño solo. Algunos niños aprenden en pocos días, pero muchos tardan varios meses y el proceso puede tomar tiempo. En esta lista encontrará libros para compartir con su hijo/hija sobre dejar el pañal.

Multcolib Picks: Parenting--Toilet Training and Bedwetting: Books for parents and children as they transition from diapers to toilet.

Games

Daniel Tiger's Stop & Go Potty App

Daniel Tiger and his friend Katerina Kittycat are like a lot of young children - they don’t always want to stop playing when they have to go to the bathroom. It can be hard to stop when they’re having so much fun. But when they start to wiggle, it’s time to Stop & Go Potty!

With Daniel Tiger’s Stop & Go Potty app, children will practice stopping their play when they have to go potty and learn about their important bathroom routines at the potty and sink.

Game: Daniel Tiger’s In My Bathroom

Little by little children learn to take care of themselves, like brushing their teeth, washing their hands and going to the potty. With this game you and your child have a way to play about and practice some bathroom routines.

Abby & Elmo's Potty Plan

Help your child listen to his body and recognize the feeling he gets right before he has to go to the bathroom. Whenever he gets the feeling, he should stop whatever he is doing and say, “Gotta go!”

Other Helpful Resources

American Academy of Pediatrics: Toilet Training

In order for a toddler to be successfully potty trained, she needs to be able to sense the urge to go, be able to understand what the feeling means, and then be able to verbalize that she needs your help to make it to the toilet and actually go. Waiting until your child is truly ready will make the experience much faster and more pleasant for everyone involved. A collection of articles on Toilet Training.

Huggies Toilet Training Games and Activities

Get your little toilet training star keen to learn with toilet training activities. Toilet toilet training games and activities can be anything that encourages your child to know how to wipe, flush and wash all on their own.

Potty Time Sequence Cards

Help keep track of potty time by creating these fun sequence cards detailing each step of the potty training process!

What to expect: Potty Training

Think your toddler is ready to transition from the changing table to a potty seat? Here's what you need to know about potty training, from the right time to start to the best way to deal with accidents.

Videos

Accidents Happen

Bathroom Manners Children’s Song ♫ I Gotta Go ♫ Good Manners & Hand Washing by The Learning Station

Potty Training Song in 6 Steps! (Sesame Studios)

The Potty Song | Healthy Habits | Pinkfong Songs for Children

Potty Training: Potty Time Theme Song

Sesame Street: Potty Time

Sitting On The Potty | Kids Songs | Super Simple Songs

References

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2013). Bedwetting. Retrieved July 29, 2020, from https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/toddler/toilet-training/Pages/Bedwetting.aspx

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2009, November). Creating a Toilet Training Plan. Retrieved July 29, 2020, from https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/toddler/toilet-training/Pages/Creating-a-Toilet-Training-Plan.aspx

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2009). Regression. Retrieved July 29, 2020, from https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/toddler/toilet-training/Pages/Regression.aspx

Becker, H. (2017). Holderness Family's Rap Parody 'Pee Thang' Is for Anyone Living with Boys. Retrieved July 29, 2020, from https://www.parents.com/toddlers-preschoolers/everything-kids/holderness-familys-rap-parody-pee-thang-is-for-anyone-living/

Canadian Paediatric Society. (2000, September). Toilet learning: Anticipatory guidance with a child-oriented approach: Canadian Paediatric Society. Retrieved July 29, 2020, from https://www.cps.ca/en/documents/position/toilet-learning

Caring for Kids. (2018, March). Toilet learning. Retrieved July 29, 2020, from https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/toilet_learning

Healthwise Staff. (2019). Bed-Wetting in Children. Retrieved July 29, 2020, from https://healthy.kaiserpermanente.org/oregon-washington/health-wellness/health-encyclopedia/he.hw213026

Donaldson-Evans, C. (2019, January 29). Nighttime Potty Training and Bed Wetting. Retrieved July 29, 2020, from https://www.whattoexpect.com/toddler/behavior/bed-wetting.aspx

Fred Rogers Productions. (2020, July 28). Helping Kids to Learn to Use the Potty. Retrieved July 29, 2020, from https://www.pbs.org/parents/thrive/learning-to-use-the-potty

Krupa, A. (2020, July 28). What to Do When Your Toddler Suddenly Stops Potty Training. Retrieved July 29, 2020, from https://www.pbs.org/parents/thrive/what-to-do-when-your-toddler-suddenly-stops-potty-training

Mann, D. (2018). Toilet Training Your Child. Retrieved July 28, 2020, from https://www.webmd.com/parenting/features/toilet-training-your-child

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2019, October 05). Potty training: How to get the job done. Retrieved July 29, 2020, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/infant-and-toddler-health/in-depth/potty-training/art-20045230

O’Connor, A. (2018, December 18). Potty Training Problems. Retrieved July 29, 2020, from https://www.whattoexpect.com/toddler/potty-training/when-accidents-happen.aspx

Wells, B. (2020, July 29). Time to Go Potty!: Navigating Toilet Training. Retrieved July 29, 2020, from https://www.pbs.org/parents/thrive/time-to-go-potty-navigating-toilet-training

Zero to Three, (2009, June 13). All About Learning to Use the Toilet. Retrieved July 29, 2020, from https://www.zerotothree.org/resources/1442-all-about-learning-to-use-the-toilet

Zero to Three, (n.d.). Potty Training: Learning to the Use the Toilet. Retrieved July 29, 2020, from https://www.zerotothree.org/resources/266-potty-training-learning-to-the-use-the-toilet