Gunpowder Empire Project Ellie Franck and Karly Johnston

Ottoman Empire

Important leaders: Osman, Mehmen the Conquerer, Suleiman the Magnificent

Osman(left), Mehmen(middle), Suleiman(right)

Relations with neighbors: Venice - controlled trade through Mediterranean

Elite warriors: Ghazi

Religion: Islam- Sunni

Religious minorities in empire: millet

Timeline: 1300-1923

Trade items traded: pepper, grain

Trade partners: Venice, Constantinople

Wealth of empire: military expansion and fiscalism main source of wealth, agriculture more important than manufacturing and commerce

Architecture: described as Byzantine architecture

Written language: Turkish

Science: many advances in astronomy, geography, medicine and physics

Piri Reis map was one of earliest world maps to include the Americas, explored ideas of a moving Earth, female surgeons illustrated for first time, structure of light, diffusion, global refraction and relation between light and color

Technology: first impulse steam turbine

Whom did they interact with? Europe

How did they interact with these other empires? Allies

What other religions or Muslim branches did they interact with? Christianity

How did they interact with different religions? The largest non Muslim group were the Orthodox Christians

Which ethnic minority groups did they interact with? Millet

How did they interact with these ethnic minorities? Allies

Map of Ottoman Empire

Mughal Empire

Important leaders: Akbar and Aurangzeb

Akbar(left), Aurangzeb(right)

Relations with neighbors: Non-Muslims had to pay the jizya, until suspended by Akbar. Later Mughal Emperors destroy Hindu temples

Elite warriors: mansab

Religion: Islam Sunni

Religious minorities: Islam and Hinduism

Timeline: 1526-1857

Trade items traded: alcohol, hemp, sugarcane, cotton

Trade partners: Europeans, Western Europe

Wealth: tax collection system

Architecture: Taj Mahal, blending of Indian and Persian styles, mostly mosques

Written language: Persian

Science: astronomy, waterworks, alchemy, mathematics, pharmacy, metallurgy

Technology: volley gun, rocket, Damascus steel, canon foundry

Whom did they interact with? Western Europe

How did they interact with these other empires? Trade

What other religions or Muslim branches did they interact with? Hindu

How did they interact with different religions? Allies

Which ethnic minority groups did they interact with? Dominant minority (AKA alien elites)

How did they interact with these ethnic minorities? Allies

Map of Mughal Empire

Safavid Empire

Important leaders: Ismail I , Tahmasp I , Ismail II Mohammed Khodabanda, Abbas I, Safi, Abbas II, Suleiman I, Soltan Hossein

The Safavids dominate Persia

Blended Persia culture traditions with Shia Islam

One of the main reasons why Ismail was so intent on his conversion policy was to give Iran and the Safavid lands as unique of an identity as possible compared to its main enemy, known as the Ottoman Empire

The Battle of Chaldiran ended with a decisive victory for the Ottoman Empire over the Safavid Empire

Some of the main ethnic groups in Iran are (religious) minorities. Most of the of Kurds, Baluchis and Turkmen are Sunni Muslims and the Armenians are Christian, while the religion in the state of Iran is Shia Islam. The majority of Persians and Azeris in the state are Shia

The mass bulk of the Iranian population is formed by the Persians, and the largest other ethno-linguistic groups are the Azerbaijanis, Kurds, Lurs, Mazandaranis, Gilakis, Arabs, Balochi, and Turkmens

In 1639 the Safavids and Ottomans signed the treaty of Zuhab, which declared that Iraq was completely in the Ottoman's control

Techniques and designs for trading goods changed as the result of improved communications in this period

Example of goods- jewelry, woven textiles and carpets, elegantly designed objects for practical use, decorative pieces, manuscripts, etc.

Architecture/architectural decoration were an important part of the urban luxury economy

The export of luxury goods such as silk and carpets became in high demand due to foreign trading

The Safavid economy thrived due to Iran's position between the civilizations of Europe to its west and India and Islamic Central Asia to its east and north. The Silk Road, which led through northern Iran to India. Abbas I also supported direct trade with Europe, particularly England and The Netherlands, which sought Iranian carpets, silk, and textiles. Other exports included horses, goat hair, pearls, and an inedible bitter almond hadam-talka used as a specie in India. The Safavid's main imports were specie, textiles (woolens from Europe, cottons from Gujarat), spices, metals, and coffee

The Turkish language was spoken in Shah Esma'il's court, but by having adopted Persian as their official language the Safavids became mistaken by outside foreigners to have been Persian, but in reality, they were purely Iranian

Along with the new use of gunpowder, the Safavid empire began to look towards horses and their multiple functions. The horse was a fast and mobile creature that could carry lots of weight wile maintaining high speeds, which was needed during this time. Their speed made the horse the main method of transportation during Safavid times. The horse was used by merchants and common people for daily needs, and it could maneuver through enemy lines quickly, making it great for military purposes

Ships were also made to help aid the Safavid empire in trade. These ships were introduced to the Safavids by yet again the Europeans, and eventually they ended up creating their own

The conflict between the Ottomans and the Safavids was based on territorial and religious differences

Both great empires sought to control vast territories in present-day Iraq, along the Caspian and their mutual borders. As Sunni Muslims, the Ottoman Empire also disagreed with the Shi’i Safavids over basic religious tenets and practices

Over the course of the Ottoman & Safavid's rivalry, both empires achieved major military victories and suffered military defeats, but neither was able to defeat decisively the other

One of Shah Ismail's most important decisions while he ruled was to declare that the state religion would now be the form of Islam called Shi'ism, and that at the time was completely foreign/out of this world to the Iranian culture

The early Safavid empire was a theocracy; religious and political power were completely intertwined in the empire

Because Shi'ism was now a state religion, with major educational establishments devoted to it, its philosophy and theology developed a lot during the Safavid Empire

Non-shia Muslims were discriminated against, banned from public office, and persecuted if they decided not to convert to Shi'ism

The Safavids ruled from 1501 to 1722 (experiencing a brief restoration in 1729-1736) and when they were at the peak of their empire they controlled all of modern Iran, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Armenia, most of Georgia, the North Caucasus, Iraq, Kuwait, and Afghanistan, as well as parts of Turkey, Syria, Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan

The Qizilbash became known as skilled warriors.

Abbas I of Persia came into power (considered the greatest ruler of the dynasty) 1587

Shah mosque was built 1611, and many mosques were built under Abbas I's rule

Sultan Husayn ruled the empire when it fell in 1694

The Hotaki Dynasty invaded the Safavid's empire, but they later gained control again in 1722

The Safavids benefited greatly from their geographical position at the center of the trade routes, and this way they became rich on the growing trade between Europe and the Islamic civilizations of central Asia and India

Map of Safavid Empire


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