World War 1

Causes of WW1

Assassination of archduke Franz Ferdinand

  • Sunday, the 28th, June 1914, Archduke Ferdinand and his wife paied a visit to Saravejo.
  • It was a national holiday of Serbia - the day they gained thier independence
  • The Archduke and his wife were on their way to visit the hospital when going through a 6km route of spectators
  • Through out this route a group called the The Black Hand was scattered. Each with a gun and a gernade in case of the event they missed with the gun.
  • When the driver turned on to Franz Joseph Street there at the corner was the leader of The Black Hand, Gavirilo Princip, a 19 year old from Serbia. He shot both the Archduke and his wife.
  • This unleashed a chain of events eventually resulting inevitable World War 1.

militarism

  • Britain had a great navy, and because of this Germany felt the pressure to have a great navy in defense as well
  • Germany was also in competition with France for a larger and better army
  • As the main countries built up their army and navy, other countries and allies felt the pressure to do the same
  • The arms race for a better military lead to new military technologies and increased spreading on the military

Allies

  • Allies - Britain, France, Russia, Italy, Serbia, and the United States
  • Central Powers - Austria-Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire
  • When Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Serbias Allie Russia came to their rescue and declared war on Austria-Hungary. Then Germany came to Austria-Hungarys recuse, and so on. Eventually every alliance was apart of the war.

Imperialism

  • The entire war started when Austria-Hungary wanted the to take the land of Serbia

Nationalism

  • Every country had their own nationalism and pride
  • Large areas of both Austria-Hungary and Serbia were home to differing nationalist groups, all of whom wanted freedom from the states in which they lived.
  • The nationalism of each country made them believe they should win even more. This pushed them to fight as hard as they could, increasing the tension of the war

Causes for U.S. entry

  • The invasion of neutral Belgium and stories of German atrocities upset Americans. Some of the stories were German propaganda, but they still left an anti-German mind set in Americans.
  • Many business men wanted to intervien in the war on the side of the allies, because an Allie victory would mean money
  • Germany sunk a British passenger ship, killing over 1000 pasangers and 128 Americans
  • The Germans promised not to use unrestricted submarine warfar but within a year they torpedoed another ship
  • The Germans wanted Mexico to declare war on the U.S. by Germany's side

Profile of an American soldier

  • American infantrymen made long journeys over dusty terrain, giving the the appearance of being covered in flour or dough. Resulting in the name "American Dough Boys"
  • An average soilder was about 29, 5 foot 5 in, and white males. They had members between the ages of 16-45. They had about six months of training

A Battle Summary

Battle of Verdun

  • Fought from 21 February to 18 December 1916, was one of the largest and longest battles
  • Fought on the western front between German and French armies
  • Took place on the hills north of Verdun-sur-Meuse in north-eastern France.
  • Germans enjoyed initial success, capturing Fort Douaumont in the first three days, but German advance slowed
  • 976,000 casualties, making it one of the bloodiest battles in history
  • A French captain reports: ...I have returned from the most terrible ordeal I have ever witnessed. […] Four days and four nights – ninety-six hours – the last two days in ice-cold mud – kept under relentless fire, without any protection whatsoever except for the narrow trench, which even seemed to be too wide. […] I arrived with 175 men, I returned with 34 of whom several had half turned insane....

Home front experiences

Women

  • Women became part of the work force to fill the place of men who went to war

Minorities

  • There were many latinos fighting in the war
  • Was transformative for African Americans due to their military contributions
  • Many Asian-Americans helped by taking small and over looked jobs

Labor force

  • The labor force had to begin hiring many more semi and unskilled labors
  • They had to decrease wages and living standards - leading to many protest

Outcomes

  • 8.5 million deaths
  • Bad economy in all countries involved
  • Farms, homes, and Towns destroyed
  • Starvation and disease killed thousands
  • $338 billion last in war
  • Allies won
  • Central powers collapse after Russia left
  • Treaty of Versailles
  • Germany had to pay for the war
  • Ottoman Empire became turkey
  • Austria Hungary split
  • Woodrow Willsons 14 points for peace

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