Assassination of archduke Franz Ferdinand
- Sunday, the 28th, June 1914, Archduke Ferdinand and his wife paied a visit to Saravejo.
- It was a national holiday of Serbia - the day they gained thier independence
- The Archduke and his wife were on their way to visit the hospital when going through a 6km route of spectators
- Through out this route a group called the The Black Hand was scattered. Each with a gun and a gernade in case of the event they missed with the gun.
- When the driver turned on to Franz Joseph Street there at the corner was the leader of The Black Hand, Gavirilo Princip, a 19 year old from Serbia. He shot both the Archduke and his wife.
- This unleashed a chain of events eventually resulting inevitable World War 1.
- Britain had a great navy, and because of this Germany felt the pressure to have a great navy in defense as well
- Germany was also in competition with France for a larger and better army
- As the main countries built up their army and navy, other countries and allies felt the pressure to do the same
- The arms race for a better military lead to new military technologies and increased spreading on the military
- Allies - Britain, France, Russia, Italy, Serbia, and the United States
- Central Powers - Austria-Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire
- When Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Serbias Allie Russia came to their rescue and declared war on Austria-Hungary. Then Germany came to Austria-Hungarys recuse, and so on. Eventually every alliance was apart of the war.
- The entire war started when Austria-Hungary wanted the to take the land of Serbia
- Every country had their own nationalism and pride
- Large areas of both Austria-Hungary and Serbia were home to differing nationalist groups, all of whom wanted freedom from the states in which they lived.
- The nationalism of each country made them believe they should win even more. This pushed them to fight as hard as they could, increasing the tension of the war
- The invasion of neutral Belgium and stories of German atrocities upset Americans. Some of the stories were German propaganda, but they still left an anti-German mind set in Americans.
- Many business men wanted to intervien in the war on the side of the allies, because an Allie victory would mean money
- Germany sunk a British passenger ship, killing over 1000 pasangers and 128 Americans
- The Germans promised not to use unrestricted submarine warfar but within a year they torpedoed another ship
- The Germans wanted Mexico to declare war on the U.S. by Germany's side
- American infantrymen made long journeys over dusty terrain, giving the the appearance of being covered in flour or dough. Resulting in the name "American Dough Boys"
- An average soilder was about 29, 5 foot 5 in, and white males. They had members between the ages of 16-45. They had about six months of training
Battle of Verdun
- Fought from 21 February to 18 December 1916, was one of the largest and longest battles
- Fought on the western front between German and French armies
- Took place on the hills north of Verdun-sur-Meuse in north-eastern France.
- Germans enjoyed initial success, capturing Fort Douaumont in the first three days, but German advance slowed
- 976,000 casualties, making it one of the bloodiest battles in history
- A French captain reports: ...I have returned from the most terrible ordeal I have ever witnessed. […] Four days and four nights – ninety-six hours – the last two days in ice-cold mud – kept under relentless fire, without any protection whatsoever except for the narrow trench, which even seemed to be too wide. […] I arrived with 175 men, I returned with 34 of whom several had half turned insane....
- Women became part of the work force to fill the place of men who went to war
- There were many latinos fighting in the war
- Was transformative for African Americans due to their military contributions
- Many Asian-Americans helped by taking small and over looked jobs
- The labor force had to begin hiring many more semi and unskilled labors
- They had to decrease wages and living standards - leading to many protest
- 8.5 million deaths
- Bad economy in all countries involved
- Farms, homes, and Towns destroyed
- Starvation and disease killed thousands
- $338 billion last in war
- Allies won
- Central powers collapse after Russia left
- Treaty of Versailles
- Germany had to pay for the war
- Ottoman Empire became turkey
- Austria Hungary split
- Woodrow Willsons 14 points for peace