Cellular Respiration is a chemical process that converts glucose (sugar) into ATP. Its reactants are glucose and oxygen and its products are ATP, water, and carbon dioxide.This process can take place in eukaryote and prokaryote cells. Cellular Respiration is known to be an aerobic process (requires the use of oxygen).
Cellular Respiration Formula/Equation
Glycolysis is a process that breaks glucose: glyco- meaning sugar and -lysis meaning breaking. Glycolysis is the first step in both cellular respiration and fermentation. This means glycolysis can occur with or without oxygen pathways (aerobic and anaerobic). Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm therefore all living things go through glycolysis. In the process of glycolysis, glucose broken down into two pyruvates after 2 ATP is used turning them into 2 ADP. The NADH+ then comes in the pyruvates and turns into NADH. The 2 ADP, from before, is turned into 2 ATP. Glycolysis produces 2 ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 pyruvates.
The Krebs cycle, also known as citric acid cycle, is the second step in cellular respiration. This process takes place in the matrix of mitochondria. The Krebs cycles occurs in all aerobic organisms. Pyruvic acid, from glycolysis process, is turned into acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA goes into the krebs cycle and collects 2 carbon dioxide and NADH is produced. It continues, producing NADH and carbon dioxide and finally creates ATP. The 4-carbon molecules goes further making even more NADH and FADH. These molecules go through the cycle twice until it makes 2 ATP.
The electron transport chain, also known as oxidative phosphorylation, occurs in the cristae of the mitochondria. This begins when NADH starts to transfer electrons into electron transport chain and hydrogens outside of the cell. The hydrogen molecules as well as the electrons are combined into oxygen. Oxygen is a main reactant used. These three combine making a product, water. The hydrogen molecules outside the cell come in the cell through ATP-synthase and recreate 34 ATP.
Electron Transport Chain shows reactants and products used during this process.
2 ATP (glycolysis) + 2 (krebs cycle) + 34 ATP (ETC) = 38 ATP (total)
Importance of Cellular Respiration (local)
Cellular respiration is important for plants because this process takes chemical energy from its food and turn it into ATP (energy). It is also another way for plants to get rid of waste. Without cellular respiration, the cells would eventually die.
Importance of Cellular Respiration (Global)
Cellular Respiration helps all living things by providing energy for it to function correctly. It's the main source of energy to humans. Cellular respiration's main purpose is to release energy. Cellular respiration is important to a cell just like digesting is important to humans since they both take in enzymes needed.