progressive tense- form of the verb be and a present participle of the main verb (be + present participle)
forms of be: am, is, are, was, were, will be
Present Progressive- The reindeer are flying tonight.
Past Progressive- The reindeer were flying last night.
Future Progressive- The reindeer will be flying tomorrow night.
perfect tense- form of the verb have and past participle of the main verb (have + past participle)
forms of have: have, had, has, will have
Present Perfect- Santa has made toys for the boys and girls.
Past Perfect- Santa had made some of the same toys before.
Future Perfect- Santa will have made all the toys by Christmas Eve.
subjunctive mood- express wish or desire, condition contrary to fact
past tense is used to state present wishes, desires, and conditions contrary to fact
past perfect: used to state past wishes, desires, and conditions contrary to fact
wish or desire- i wish
condition contrary to fact- If...would, could, should
demand or recommendations that express uncertainty after the words if or weather
demand after that- I must insist that your sister be home when we get the tree.
recommendation after that- i recommend that you buy a real evergreen Christmas tree.
uncertainty- weather you buy a real tree or a fake tree, i will still buy a real one.
wish / desire- I wish that Christmas was here already.
I wished I got the decorations out earlier.
contrary to fact- If it were December, I would hang up the stockings.
If it was snowing, we could have a white Christmas.