Principles of Designs
Alignment is when you line the shapes up with each other to create a sharper design. The dashed lines in this adidas logo are aligned with each other because the bottom of the shapes are lined up with each other.
Items with closer spacing/proximity signifies that the items are connected or have a relationship to each other. This is an example of proximity because the BR in Baskin Robins logo has a hidden 31 which represents their 31 different flavors. The number is in close proximity with each other because they are related, just like the B and the R are close to each other because they are also related.
Contrast is the arrangement of opposite elements. This McDonalds ad is an example of contrast because yellow and red are opposite colors and they contrast each other.