Islamic Cultures in Asia Created by noah constable and alex towle

Ottoman Empire
Osman I, leader of the Ghazis

Government

Osman I was the original leader of the Ghazis, soldiers that fled the Persians to Asia Minor. His tribe members were know as Ottomans. This tribe attacked Constantinople, then controlled by the Byzantine Empire. Eventually the got an Ottoman Sultan on the throne. The Ottomans used what they called Janissaries, which where highly trained slaves they used as troops. At some point, a rival leader named Timur attacked the Ottomans. The Timur Invasion was unique because he gave the land back to the people. After this, a leader named Murad rose from the civil war. He helped piece the Ottoman Empire back together and built a strong army. After him came Mehmed II, who is regarded as the greatest Sultan ever. He conquered Constantinople and renamed it to Istanbul. Eventually the government became corrupt, especially after WWI and colonization by the British, and eventually collapsed in 1923.

Religion

Before the majority of the Ottoman Empire turned to Sunni- Islamic, they organized themselves into millets. Millets were neighborhoods organized by religion, each with its own leader. Each of these millets answered to the government, but mostly functioned independently. The Ottoman Empire was, for a long time, a non- Muslim majority, however, they gradually shifted to Islam. They eventually declared their official religion as Islam, specifically Sunni. Sultan Selim I ordered the massacre of 40,000 Alevis, which where ranked lowest in society, below christians and Jews.

Empire

1396 was the when the first official Ottoman Sultan was appointed. The Emprie continued well for hundreds of years, until Sultan Selyman "the magnificent" died. This signaled the beginning of the Ottoman Empires decline. Gradually, the western powers gained influence with a growing interest in the massive amount of oil buried in the desert. The British defeated the Ottoman Empire and took control. After a long time of trying to hold on, the Ottoman Empire was dissolved in 1923.

Suleyman "the magnificent"

Economy

The Ottoman's strategy was simple, keep the working class wealthy and happy so that they would not rebel and hurt the economy. This worked very well for the Ottomans. They used mostly land trade routes to reach Europe, the Middle East, and parts of Asia. These land routes were outdated once nations started using sea routes, which were far more efficient. The Ottomans controlled the silk trade up until the 1600's, when they were outed by Asian countries. The Ottomans tried a new strategy of welcoming immigrants so they could have more workers. The Ottomans also tried to industrialize their capitals in an effort to catch up to the western powers, but it was not enough.

Culture

The Ottoman social classes looked somewhat like this: the Sultans were the top class, seconded by the Grand Viziers, who were like second- in- commands. Then came the Reaya. The Reaya were the lowest class, and were often treated like it. Over time the Ottomans adjusted their views so that Reayas could move up classes if the had the talent. The Ottoman culture was mostly made up of cultures taken from conquered regions, and adapted them to their own style giving them a distinct Ottoman quality. Slavery was common, however as opposed to American slavery Ottoman slavery was more household stuff, and not manual labor. The Ottomans specialized in poetry and prose but was influenced by the French.

Safavid

Government

Durning the 1200s the ruler of the empire was Safī od-Dīn, was the ruler of the original empire. But later the empire was tacken by the Persians. Esmā'īl who was a prisoner of the Persians escaped then took the city of Tabriz which he made his capital and declared himself the Shah. Then he later fought the Ottomans over his acceptance of the shi'ah religion, using his army of kizilbash. After his death his son took over the fight later losing land to the Ottomans in the end. Later Abbas came to the throne. Abbas recreated the military and then took the land that was lost to them from the Ottomans and moved the capital to Esfahan.

Empire

The empire started in th 1200s originally ruled by the Persians. Until durning the 1500s Esmā'īl escaped the Persians. When he took the city of Tabrīz making it his capital. When Esmā'īl took the throne he claimed the religion to be shi'ah, even though most of the empire was Sunni at the time. But due to how the empire though Esmā'īl as a saint it made the conversion easy.

Economy

The Shah originally encouraged trade and the manufacturing with foreign powers. Durning this time a major export for the Safavid was their exporting carpets. These carpets often end up in the wealthy homes of European homes. But after the death of Abbas economy crumbled and fell into many smaller states.

Culture

The capital of Safavid was known for having many fantastic mosques, monuments, as well as bath houses. Europeans began to call the empire as a comercial center for the first order.

Mughal

Government

The Mughal government had a king-like ruler they called the shah. The founder of the Mughal empire was a descendent of Genghis Khan named Babur. Babur established himself in Kabul and slowly took over India. Eventually his grandson Akbar took the throne and married a Rajput princess. Akbar was maybe the best Shah that the Mughal Empire ever had, encouraging religious freedom, developed a strong economy, and even established a new religion. Aurangzeb was the last Shah to rule the Mughal Empire before its collapse.

Religion

Akbar encouraged religious freedom with blended elements from both Hinduism and Islam. This created peace between the religious groups, until Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb was a devoted Sunni Muslim that ascended to the throne and established a strict Islamic law which oppressed the Hindus, such as restablishing a tax as well as destroying temples. He also oppressed many of the Shia and Sufi muslims. This led to a religious uprising which was stopped by Aurangzeb using elephants.

Empire

The Mughal Empire was started in 1526, and controlled all of northern and much of central India. At its peak, the empire covered 1.2 million square miles, ruled over 150 million subjects, and had a GDP of over $90 billion, adjusted for inflation. Many the northern lands were attained by them attacking the sultan of Delhi. Revolts and economic troubles led to the decline of the Mughal Empire in 1707 and it officially ended in 1857 with the British colonizing India in their wake.

Economy

The Mughal Empire was the richest empire to ever exist at its peak, earning a combined GDP of $90 billion. They did this by imposing a new and improved tax system which estimated profit ahead of time. This wealthy economy attracted European traders, and because of its location along sea trade routes. The Mughal Empire was so wealthy that the throne was literally made of jewels such as diamonds, rubies, and sapphires.

The Peacock Throne

Culture

During its early times, the Empire supported many of the beliefs of Christians and Muslims. But over time Islam came to dominate, mainly Sunni with Shia, Sufi, and Hindus being oppressed with special taxes. The Mughal Empire came to recognize and official motto over time, "Allahu Akbar" which means Akbar is God. At the height of the Empire the Mughals were renowned for their architecture. They built structures such as the Red a Fort and the Taj Mahal.

Sources Cited

Holt World History https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbas_I_of_Persia, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ismail_I https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mughal_Empire https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottoman_Empire

Created By
Noah Constable
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