Germany was also late to industrialize but more successful than France. The French occupation and the implementation of the Napoleonic Code and helped modernize the German economy: guilds declined, tariffs and taxes between German states decreased, and France’s unified legal system helped encourage investment.
The German government also encouraged industrialization. Prussia invested in infrastructure and led the creation of the Zollverein customs union, which abolished tariffs among member states and facilitated trade. Germany had particularly well developed railway, coal, and steel industries and would pioneer the electrical and chemical industries later on.
German industrialization was most dramatic, however, during the second industrial revolution in the mid-to-late 1800s, during which the German economy greatly improved. It would overtake France and, in 1870, when the German states were unified into the modern nation, industry skyrocketed.