Scientific Revolution & the emergence of modern science

Ptolemy and the muse Astronomy

Ptolemy (100-168 AD) is known as the father of astronomy, he is noted for his Geocentric theory, which places Earth at the center of the universe. This theory was favored by the Catholic Church, and remained predominant for a long period of time.

Geocentric Model

The Geocentric Theory placed earth as the center of the universe with all other heavenly bodies revolving around it.

The Heliocentric Theory which is generally accepted as scientific fact today follows the idea that all planets within this solar system including Earth revolve around the Sun.

Heliocentric model

The Catholic Church during the Renaissance era was opposed to the Heliocentric theory because in brought into question the creation of the Earth as it was stated in the Bible and threatened the Church's credibility and power.

Geocentric and Heliocentric Model side-by-side comparison

Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) developed the Heliocentric model. His book On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres was published in 1543. Despite placing the Sun at the center and the earth revolving around it his book did not meet significant resistance from the Catholic Church during his lifetime. However it inspired further research of others after Copernicus' death.


Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) is noted for further developing the Heliocentric Theory. Galileo used the telescope, a recent invention to study the sky and develop his ideas. After studying the orbit of Jupiter's moons around Jupiter he concluded that since those moons could revolve around Jupiter and not the Earth, than perhaps not everything revolved around the Earth as believed in the Geocentric theory. He published his works the Starry Messenger and Letters on Sunspots and received backlash from the Catholic Church. Galileo was arrested in 1632 for question the Church


While Astronomy was the most known field of science being developed during the Scientific Revolution, other fields such as mathematics, physics, and biology, anatomy, and chemistry were also being studied.

Issac Newton (1642-1727) was a mathematician from England. He published The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy and is noted for the law of gravity, which helped to explain the planets orbits as well as the way objects behave and affect each other through the universe. His method focused on observation and deductive reasoning.

Issac Newton

Francis Bacon (1561-1626) developed the idea of the scientific method, which focused on observation and experimentation from which could be drawn a conclusion (deductive reasoning). Bacon's method encouraged discovery and new findings rather than relying on ancient methods and what was supposedly fact.

Francis Bacon
Created By
Vanette Csaszar

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