Cyclotrons and cyclotron facilities have very little positive affect on the environment if any.
However, due to the small size of cyclotrons and cyclotron facilities, minimal damage is done to the environment. The negative effects to the environment are limited to the small amount of materials needed for the facility, and the possibility of small amounts of radiation.
Due to Canada's health care system, cyclotrons are limited in stimulating the economy. The medical care is already paid for by the government. In other countries with different health care approaches, medical services that use a cyclotron would need to be payed for, generating some income. Scientific experiments will also not be economically beneficial until a breakthrough is made that can be used to generate revenue.
The average cost of a cyclotron facility is between 2.5 - 6 million dollars. Plus an upkeep of about 600 thousand dollars a year to use it and keep it functional. Some cyclotrons are privately funded but others, especially in Canada, are publicly funded.
Cyclotrons are used for radiation treatment to kill cancerous tumors. The ion beam can penetrate the body and destroy the tumor while doing minimal damage to healthy tissue. Cyclotrons are also used for medical imaging and creating radiopharmaceuticals which are incredibly helpful for some patients.
Some groups of people may question if the money needed to create cyclotron facilities is well spent and others may have doubts about the small amounts of radiation that cyclotrons help emit.